there are in DE equal to F: in like manner, as many as there are in BG equal to C, so many are there in EH equal to F: therefore as many as there are in the whole AG equal to C, so inany are there in the whole DH equal to F: therefore AG is the same multiple of C that DH is of F; that is AG, the first and fifth together, is A E the same multiple of the second C, that B DH, the third and sixth together, is of the KI G fourth F. If, therefore, the first be the same multiple, &c. Q. E. D. Cor. From this it is plain, that if any HC LF number of magnitudes AB, BG, GH, be multiples of another C; and as many DE, EK, KL, be the same multiples of F, each of each: then the whole of the first, viz. AH, is the same multiple of C, that the whole of the last, viz. DL, is of F. PROP. III. THEOR. If the first be the same multiple of the second, which the third is of the fourth; and if of the first and third there be taken equimultiples ; these shall be equimultiples, the one of the second, and the other of the fourth. Let A the first be the same multiple of B the second, that C the third is of D the fourth; and of A, C let equimultiples EF, GH be taken: then EF shall be the same multiple of B, that GH is of D. Because EF is the same multiple of A, that GH is of C, there are as many magnitudes in EF equal to A, as there are in GH F H equal to C: let EF be divided into the magnitudes EK, KF, each equal to A; and GH into GL, K L LH, each equal to C: therefore the number of the magnitudes EK, KF, shall be equal to the number of the others, GL, LH: and because A is the same multiple of B, that C is of D, and that EK is equal to A, and GL equal to C; therefore EK is the same multiple of B, that GL is of D: for the same reason, KF is the same multiple of B, that LH is of D: and so, if there be more parts in EF, GH, equal to A, C: therefore, because the first EK is the same E A B multiple of the second B, which the third GL is of the fourth D, and that the fifth KF is the same multiple of the second B, which the sixth LH is of the fourth D; EF, the first together with the fifth, is the same multiple* of the second B, which GH, the third together with the sixth, is of the fourth D. If, therefore, the first, &c. Q. E. D. * %. 5. PROP. IV. THEOR. See N. If the first of four magnitudes has the same ratio to the second which the third has to the fourth ; then any equimultiples whatever of the first and third shall have the same ratio to any equimultiples of the second and fourth, viz. the equimultiple of the first shall have the same ratio to that of the second, which the equimultiple of the third has to that of the fourth.' Let A the first have to B the second the same ratio which the third C has to the fourth D; and of A and C let there be taken any equimultiples whatever E, F; and of B and D any equimultiples whatever G, H: then E shall have the same ratio to G which F has to H. Take of E and F any equimultiples whatever, K, L, and of G, H, any KE A BG M LF C DH N equimultiples whatever, M, N: then because É is the same multiple of A, that F is of C; and of E and F have been taken equimultiples, K, L; there* 3. 5. fore K is the same multiple of A*, that M, N; therefore if K be greater than M, L is greater * 5 Def. 5. than N; and if equal, equal; if less, less*: but K, L are + Constr. any equimultiples t whatever of E, F, and M, N, any • 5 Def. 5. whatever of G, H; therefore as E is to G, so is * F to H. Therefore, if the first, &c. Q. E. D. Cor. Likewise, if the first has the same ratio to the second, which the third has to the fourth, then also any equimultiples whatever of the first and third shall have the same ratio to the second and fourth: and in like manner, the first and the third shall have the same ratio to any equimultiples whatever of the second and fourth. Let A the first have to B the second the same ratio which the third C has to the fourth D, and of A and C let E and F be any equimultiples whatever ; then E shall be to B as F to D. Take of E, F any equimultiples whatever K, L, and of B, D any equimultiples whatever G, H: then it may be demonstrated, as before, that K is the same multiple of A, that L is of C: and because + A is to B + Hyp. as C is to D, and of A and C certain equimultiples have been taken, viz. K and L; and of B and D certain equimultiples G, H; therefore if K be greater than G, L is greater than H; and if equal, equal ; if less, less * : * 5 Def.5. but K, L, are any + equimultiples whatever of E, F, and + Constr. G, H any whatever of B, D; therefore as E is to B t, so is F to D. And in the same way the other case + 5 Def. š. is demonstrated. If one magnitude be the same multiple of another, which See N. a magnitude taken from the first is of a magnitude taken from the other ; the remainder shall be the same multiple of the remainder, that the whole is of the whole. Let the magnitude AB be the same multiple of CD, that AE taken from the first is of CF taken from the other: the remainder EB shall be the same multiple of the remainder FD, A that the whole AB is of the whole CD. Take AG the same multiple of FD, that с AE is of CF: therefore AE is * the same E * 1. 5. multiple of CF, that EG is of CD: but F AE, by the hypothesis, is the same multi B D ple of CF, that AB is of CD; therefore EG is the same multiple of CD that AB is of CD; wherefore EG is equal * to AB: take from each of them the * 1 Ax. 5. common magnitude AE; and the remainder AG is equal to the remainder EB. Wherefore, since AE, is the same multiple of CF ts that AG is of FD, + Constr. and that AG is equal to EB; therefore AE is the same multiple of CF, that EB is of FD: but AE is the same multiple of CF + that AB is of CD; therefore EB + Hyp. is the same multiple of FD, that AB is of CD. Therefore, if one magnitude, &c. Q. E. D. PROP. VI. THEOR. See N. If two magnitudes be equimultiples of two others, and if equimultiples of these be taken from the first two; the remainders are either equal to these others, or equimultiples of them. Let the two magnitudes AB, CD be equimultiples of the two E, F, and let AG, CH taken from the first two be equimultiples of the same E, F: the remainders GB, HD shall be either equal to E, F, or equimultiples of them. First, let GB be equal to E: HD shall be equal to F. Make CK equal to F: and because AG is the same multiple of + Hyp. Et, that CH is of F, and that GB is equal to E, and CK to F; therefore AB is the BD E F multiple of F, that CD is of F: wherefore KH is * 1 Ax.5. equal * to CD : take away the common magnitude CH, then the remainder KC is equal to the remainder + Constr. HD: but KC is equal + to F; therefore HD is equal A K G H to F. Next, let GB be a multiple of E; HD shall be the same multiple of F. Make CK the same K multiple of F, that GB is of E: and -be А cause AG is the same multiple of Et, that + Hyp. CH is of F; and GB the same multiple ch of E, that CK is of F; therefore AB is the * 2.5. same multiple of E *, that KH is of F: + Hyp. but AB is the same multiple of Et, that BD ET CD is of F; therefore KH is the same multiple of F, that CD is of F; wherefore KH is *1 Ax. 5. equal * to CD: take away CH from both ; therefore the remainder KC is equal to the remainder HD: and + Constr. because GB is the same multiple of Et, that KC is of F, and that KC is equal to HD; therefore HD is the same multiple of F, that GB is of E. If, therefore, two magnitudes, &c. Q. E. D. PROP. A. THEOR. If the first of four magnitudes has the same ratio to the See N. second which the third has to the fourth; then, if the first be greater than the second the third is also greater than the fourth ; and if equal, equal ; if less, less. Take any equimultiples of each of them, as the doubles of each : then, by def. 5th of this book, if the double of the first be greater than the double of the second, the double of the third is greater than the double of the fourth: but if the first be greater than the second, the double of the first is greater than the double of the second; wherefore also the double of the third is greater than the double of the fourth ; therefore the third is greater than the fourth : in like manner, if the first be equal to the second, or less than it, the third can be proved to be equal to the fourth, or less than it. Therefore if the first, &c. Q. E. D. PROP. B. THEOR. If four magnitudes are proportionals, they are propor- See N. tionals also when taken inversely. Let A be to B, as C is to D: then also inversely B shall be to A, as D to C. Take of B and D any equimultiples whatever E and F; and of A and C any equimultiples whatever G and H. First, let E be greater than G, then G is less than E: and because + A is to B as C is to D, and of A and + Hyp. C the first and third, G and H are equimultiples; and of B and D the second and fourth, E and F are equimultiples; and that G is less than E, therefore H is * less than F; * 5 Def. 5. that is, F is greater than H; if, therefore, GABE JIC DF E be greater than G, F is greater than H: in like manner, if E be equal to G, F may be shewn to be equal to H; and if less, less; but E, F are any equimultiples + whatever + Constr. of B and D, and G, H any whatever of A and C; thereforet as B is to A, so is D to C. Therefore, if + 5 Def. 5. four magnitudes, &c. Q. E. D. |