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gles BAC, BAD and the angles FGH, FGK, equal to the angles ABC, ABD, each to each. Therefore the triangles ABC, ABD are equiangular to the triangles FGH, FGK, each to each. Through the point H draw HL parallel to FG, meeting KF produced in L. And because the angles BAC, BAD are equal to the angles GFH, GFK, each to each ; therefore the angles ACE, AEC are equal to FHL, FLH, each to each, and the triangle AEC equiangular to the triangle FLH. Therefore as EA to AC, so is LF to FH, and as CA to AB, so HF to FG; and as BA to AD, so is GF to FK; wherefore, ex æquali, as EA to AD, so is LF to FK. But, as was shewn, the triangle ABC is to the triangle ABD, as the straight line EX to AD, that is, as LF to FK. The ratio therefore of LF to FK has been found, which is the same with the ratio of the triangle ABC to the triangle ABD.

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If two rectilineal figures given in species be described upon See N.

the same straight lime; they shall have a given ratio to one another.

52 Dat.

Let any two rectilineal figures ABCDE, ABFG, which are given in species, be described upon the same straight line AB; the ratio of them to one another is given.

Join AC, AD, AF; each of the triangles AED, ADC, ACB, AGF, ABF is given * in species. And • 15 Dat. because the triangles ADE, ADC given in species, are described upon the same straight line AD, the ratio of EAĎ to DAC is given *; and E by composition, the ratio of

C
EACD to DAC is given *.
And the ratio of DAC to CAB ΑΙ
is given *, because they are de-

* 52 Dat. scribed upon the same straight G

F line AC; therefore the ratio

. of EACD to ACB is given * ;H_Ą Į MNO 9 Dat. and, by composition, the ratio of ABCDE to ABC is given. In the same manner, the ratio of ABFG, to ABF is given. But the ratio of the triangle ABC to the triangle ABF is given ;

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* 52 Dat.

wherefore because the ratio of ABCDE to ABC is given, as also the ratio of ABC to ABF, and the ratio of ABF to ABFG; the ratio of the rectilineal ABCDE to the rectilineal ABFG is given *

,

* 9 Dat.

PROBLEM.

same.

To find the ratio of two rectilineal figures given in species, and described upon the same straight line.

Let ABCDE, ABFG be two rectilineal figures given in species, and described upon the same straight line AB, and join AC, AD, AF. Take a straight line HK given in position and magnitude, and by the 52d Dat. find the ratio of the triangle ADE to the triangle ADC, and ake the ratio of HK to the same with it. Find also the ratio of the triangle ACD to the triangle ACB, and make the ratio of KL to LM the

Also, find the ratio of the triangle ABC to the triangle ABF, and make the ratio of LM to MN the same. And, lastly, find the ratio of the triangle AFB to the triangle AFG, and make the ratio of MN to NO the same.

Then the ratio of ABCDE to ABFG is the same with the ratio of HM to MO.

Because the triangle EAD is to the triangle DAC, as the straight line HK to KL; and

E as the triangle DAC to CAB, so is the straight line KL to LM; therefore by using com A position as often as the number of triangles requires, the G rectilineal ABCDE is to the triangle ABC, as the straight HK L MNO line HM to ML. In like manner, because the triangle GAF is to FAB, as ON to NM, by composition, the rectilineal ABFG is to the triangle ABF as MO to NM, and by inversion, as ABF to ABFG so is NM to MO. And the triangle ABC is to ABF, as LM to MN. Wherefore, because as ABCDE to ABC, so is HM to ML: and as ABC to ABF, so is LM to MN; and as ABF to ABFG, so is MN to MO; ex æquali, as the rectilineal ABCDE to ABFG, so is the straight line HM to MO.

50.

PROP. LIV.
If two straight lines have a given ratio to one another ;

the similar rectilineal figures described upon them simi-
larly, shall have a given ratio to one another.

Let the straight lines AB, CD, have a given ratio to one another, and let the similar and similarly placed rectilineal figures E, F, be described upon them; the ratio of E to F is given.

To AB, CD, let G be a third proportional; therefore

G as AB to CD, so is CD to G. And the ratio of AB to CD is

E given ; wherefore the ratio of

В С D CD to G is given ; and consequently the ratio of AB to G H K L is also given *. But as AB to

9 Dat. G, so is the figure E to the figure * F. Therefore the *12 Cor. ratio of E to F is given.

20. 6.

PROBLEM. To find the ratio of two similar rectilineal figures E, F, similarly described upon straight lines AB, CD, which have a given ratio to one another: Let G be a third proportional to AB, CD.

Take a straight line H given in magnitude; and because the ratio of AB to CD is given, make the ratio of H to K the same with it; and because H is given, K is given. As H is to K, so make K to L; then the ratio of E to F is the same with the ratio of H to L: for AB is to CD, as H to K, wherefore CD is to G, as K to L; and, ex æquali, as AB to G, so is H to L; but the figure E is to * the figure F, as AB to G, * 2 Cor. that is, as H to L.

PROP. LV.
If two straight lines have a giren ratio to one another ;

the rectilineal figures given in species, described upon
them, shall have to one another a given ratio.

Let AB, CD, be two straight lines which have a given ratio to one another; the rectilineal figures E, F, given in species and described upon them, have a given ratio to one another.

20. 6.

51.

Upon the straight line AB, describe the figure AG similar and similarly placed to the figure F; and because F is given in species, AG is also given in species: therefore, since the figures E, AG, which are given in species, are described E

А. upon the same straight

B line AB, the ratio of E

F * 53 Dat. to AG is given *, and

G because the ratio of AB H - K K-Lto CD is given, and up

on them are described the similar and similarly placed * 54 Dat. rectilineal figures AG, F, the ratio of AG to F is given *;

and the ratio of AG to E is given; therefore the ratio * 9 Dat. of E to F is given *.

PROBLEM.

To find the ratio of two rectilineal figures E, F, given in species and described upon the straight lines AB, CD, which have a given ratio to one another.

Take a straight line H given in magnitude; and because the rectilineal figures E, AG, given in species, are described upon the same straight line AB, find their ratio by the 53d Dat. and make the ratio of H to K the same, K is therefore given. And because the similar rectilineal figures AG, F, are described upon the straight lines AB, CD, which have a given ratio, find their ratio by the 54th Dat. and make the ratio of K to L the same: the figure E has to F the same ratio which H has to L: for by the construction, as E is to AG, so is H to K; and as AG to F, so is K to L: therefore, ex æquali, as E to F, so is H to L.

52.

PROP. LVI.

If a rectilineal figure given in species be described upon

a straight line given in magnitude ; the figure is given in magnitude.

Let the rectilineal figure ABCDE given in species, be described upon the straight line AB given in magnitude ; the figure ABCDE is given in magnitude.

Upon AB let the square AF be described ; therefore AF is given in species and magnitude, and because the rectilineal figures ABCDE, XF, given in species are

С

53 Dat.

• % Dat.

described upon the same straight line AB, the ratio of ABCDE to AF is given*: but the square

B AF is given in magnitude, there

E fore * also the figure ABCDE D is given in magnitude. PROB.

E! A To find the magnitude of a

M rectilineal figure given in species described upon a straight line given in magnitude. Take the straight line GH

H K equal to the given straight line AB, and by the 53d Dat. find the ratio which the square AF upon AB has to the figure ABCDE; and make the ratio of GH to HK the same; and upon GH describe the square GL and complete the parallelogram LHKM; the figure ABCDE is equal to LHKM. Because AF is to ABCDE, as the straight line GH to HK, that is, as the figure GL to HM; and AF is equal to GL; therefore ABCDE is equal to HM *.

* 14.5.

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If two rectilineal figures be given in species, and if a

side of one of them have a given ratio to a side of the other; the ratios of the remaining sides to the remaining sides shall be given.

Let AC, DF, be two rectilineal figures given in species, and let the ratio of the side AB to the side DE be given, the ratios of the remaining sides to the remaining sides are also given.

Because the ratio of AB to DE is given, as also * the * 3 Def. ratios of AB to BC, and of DE to EF, the ratio of BC to EF is given *. In the same manner the ratios of * 10 Dat. the other sides to the other sides are given.

The ratio which BC has to EF may be found thus: take a straight line G given in magnitude, and because the ratio of BC to BA is given, make the ratio of G to H the same; and because the ratio of AB to DE is given, make the ratio of H to K the same; and make

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