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Quoque die repetunt limina nota fori.
Cum solo deinceps sola datura fui.
Abstulerat. Sic nunc omnia terra dabit.
“Eja agite! En, vestris certa medela malis!
Hanc sequitur phialam non dubitanda quies.”
Mors sequitur; mortem non dubitanda quies.
Biblical Criticism. Having lately read in the Classical Journal various discussions respecting an expression of St. Paul in his Epistles to the Corinthians, ch. xi. v. 10, I beg to offer the following as not an improbable explanation. A friend mentioned it to me, and some one acquainted with Oriental manners may afford it additional light.
Eastern kings, despots, and princes used to send messengers into distant provinces, cities, and towns, in order to select the most beautiful women for the gratification of their own inordinate passions: and I believe a similar practice prevails at he present day in some parts of Asia and European Turkey. Can any thing be more probable than that these messengers did not hesitat, in furtherance of their mission, to enter the churches and ineetings of the persecuted Christians, and that therefore the apostle warned the woman to have power on her head, (or a covering, in sign that she was under the power of her husband), già tous syyénous, because of the messengers. I believe the marriage vow has been respected during the worst ages of Eastern despotism, at least to a certain extent; and that it has
always been more or less the custom of modest and particularly of married women in the East to cover the head, and conceal the face from observation. Amongst the Romans we know that the very act of marriage implied to cover the head, caput velare flammeo,' and that the veil was of a yellow color, to conceal the blushes of the bride.
The apostle may therefore have said, in compliance with the feelings and prejudices of the age: every woman praying or prophesying with her head uncovered dishonoreth her head; nay more, exposes herself to the risk of becoming an object of profane research or admiration; to obviate these dangers in a great degree, if she be not covered let her be shorn;' an operation which would deprive her of the natural attraction of her hair. Nothing can more strongly mark his disapprobation of a woman being uncovered, than this expression, for that is all one as if she were shaven,' which we are afterwards informed was shameful.
PSALM CXXXVII. Latine redd.
Et patriæ memores strinxit imago sinus.
Cessantes rami sustinuere lyras.
Dixit Idumæis turba ministra malis.
Cum procul a Solyma dissita prata colam ?
Percurrat solitum dextera fausta melos; ,
Si cadat e memori corde Sionis amor,
Sic jubet e mæstis læta redire malis.
Ducet ad æquatas funera certa vices.
Idem Græce redd.
εντεα πάν μολπάν ηρτησαμεν αμφι κλαδοισιν,
Εur. Heracl. 1014.
Χρήζω, λιπων δ' αν ουδέν άχθοίμην βίον. Sensum horum verborum minime assecuti sunt interpretes. Quorum conjecturis omissis, meam interpretationem proponam. Plerunique solent homines, qui aliquid ab ætate, sexu aut conditione sua alienum faciunt, ipsi sui accusatores fieri, ne in αναισθησίας suspicionem incurrant, et ex ignorantia peccare videtur [videantur.] Ita Macaria v. 475. Alcmena v. 978. et hoc loco Eurystheus. Verte, Nunc autem licet supplicem et timidum
Cicero pro Milone c. 34. - Timidos et supplices, et, ut vivere liceat, obsecrantes. Scilicet non diffitetur se abjectum et timidum vocari posse, qui sævitiam suam in Herculem ejusque liberos excusando mortem detrectare conatus sit. Huc enim spectavit tota ejus oratio. Nulla difficultas est in voce προστρόπαιον, quα ικέτην significat ap. Soph. Αj. 1173. Phil. 930. Major in altero vocabulo γενναίον, Forteam, Animosum, quod cum mea interpretatione conciliari nequit, nisi per iro
The above note, which is taken from Elmsley's edition, does not remove the obscurity of the passage. It will scarcely be disputed that in the same sentence both adjectives' must be ironically or literally understood. In this instance the latter
must evidently be the case. Τον προστρόπαιον, τόν τε γενναίον is the same as τον προστρ. ή τον γ. The words of Ειιrystheus by no means imply an acknowledgment of pusillanimity, but rather indifference as to the impression produced on bis auditors. The meaning of the passage is this. You have brought your accusation, and you have heard my defence. From this you may
form your judgment, you may call me a crouching suppliant, or the reverse. However, thus the matter stands : I neither desire death, nor shall I be wanting in courage to meet it.” Had Eurystheus intended to anticipate the charge of cowardice, as Macaria and Alcmena (alluded to in the note) those of forwardness and cruelty, these deprecatory expressions would have prefaced and not concluded his speech. On the contrary, he commences in a fearless manner:
Γύναι, σάφ' ίσθι μη με θωπεύσοντά σε, ,
Λέξονθ', όθεν χρη δειλίαν οφλείν τινά. The inconsistency of this commencement and the termination, if interpreted as in the note, is obvious. Had his address been supplicatory as well as exculpatory, the argument (a strong one in those times) that he acted at the instigation of Juno, est' éxensav, eite unt, would have been more vehemently insisted on. In fact, the language and conduct of Eurystheus, when in the power of his enemies, is manly and courageous, and not perfectly consistent with the character attributed to him in v. 800. sqq. where he is represented as declining the combat with Hyllus.
NOTICE OF The CHARACTERS OF THEOPHRASTUS, * translated from the Greek, and illustrated by Physi
ognomical Sketches. By Francis Howell. London, Taylor : royal octavo, price 11, 1s. imperial 11. 113. 60.
We are glad to see Theophrastus before us once more, in a new coat retaining much of the original cut, yet free and flowing enough to admit of the old Grecian moving himself with grace in its easy amplitude. We have also in this translation the original text appended, which is, to say the least of it, a very candid mode of inviting comparison and criticism ; and, in addition to the text, we have an elegantly written preface, wherein the Science of Mind, as studied in modern times, is concisely alluded to, and a series of notes at the end of the volume, in which it is more attentively considered, and treated with a closeness of reasoning and seriousness of sentiment, a degree of knowlege of the world, and observation of individual character, which show's the writer to have brought to his task of-translation a mind congenial with that of the celebrated person, whose most celebrated work he has translated, in a manner which will make the Needhams and Newtons of days gone by“ hide their diminished heads.”
As one of the most forcibly delineated characters of Theophrastus, one which we may contemplate any day from the life, in the hundreds of Essex, the fens of Lincolnshire, or the wolds of Yorkshire, we would quote The Rustic, p. 16. to 18. As a specimen of the original vein of thought, and solidity of reflection, which distinguish the translator of, and commentator on, these Characters, we will give his remarks on The FearFUL, not as the best, but as the shortest, and therefore the most suitable to our comments in this place.
THE FEARFUL.-Reason is an unfit remedy for alarms that spring from the poverty of the animal system. The more the Coward reasons, the more he quakes: when danger must be met, the best course he can take is to leave reason and imagination behind, by a reckless leap into the very midst of things. The only remedy that can be applied to the mind, is that which is furnished by habit, and familiarity with danger. But it is the body that is chiefly in fault; and it should be corroborated by ample and generous diet, and a full measure of exercise in the open air. In the early cure of physical timidity, the different constitution and circumstances of the sexes must be observed: the fears of a girl may, with propriety, be allayed by reasoning; because it is not desirable, nor indeed possible, if it were desirable, to give hardy insensibility to the body; and also because the perils, to which women are ordinarily exposed,
, more often allow of some recurrence to reason; and demand calm recollection, rather than force, or enterprise : but the fears of a boy ought never to receive so much attention and respect. Every motive of shame, every prudent familiarising with danger, and every physical corroboration, should be employed to conquer a defect which, so far as it prevails, renders a man miserable, contemptible, and useless.
It only remains for us to say, that this volume is illustrated with fifty engravings on wood--one from the antique, the rest from original designs, very forcible and characteristic in expression. The engravings themselves are exquisitely done, and if we particularise those of Williams above the rest, it is only because his name being less known to fame than his merit deserves, it becomes a duty to promulgate it, in those who have