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IN DOCIT DIS CANT, ET A MENT MEMINISS E PIRIT I.
E T M
Ε Τ Ν
Etna. Ethiope E TESTO PISARNA SORTIDES. ARTIAL, and MINERAL. cirou borehet Ere e paraEu fofter heving tema elled Etmuller
ETHMOIDES, in anatomy, a bone fituated in feffor of botany, chemistry, and anatomy, at Leiplic;
ed several pieces, and died in 1732.
has been already given under the latter spelling ÆTNA.
till any of the other sides, the way being not so straight,
author's opinion, formed under water. But the period
shores of Sicily, are facts concerning of which we
may be regarded as undeniable. When this mountain
intermixed with the volcanic matters discharged from ETIQUETTE, a French term, primarily denoting the focus of the burning mount. In a long series of a ticket or title affixed to a bag or bundle of papers, ages thefe ftrata of heterogeneous matters would naexpressing its contents. It is also used, when applied turally become so considerable as to form the enorto the Spanish and some other courts, to signify a mous mass of mountains with which the volcano is particular account of what is to be done daily in the now surrounded. The currents of the ocean might ofking's household, and in the chief ceremonies relating ten convey the volcanic matters to a considerable to it.
likewise denotes those forms that regulate distance from the volcanic focus. And there are the decorum of conduct towards persons of various mountains at no small distance from Etna, which seem ranks and stations.
to have been produced in this manner. Those of ETMULLER (Michael), a most eminent physi- Carlintini, at the distance of 15 leagues, conlik chiefly VOL. VII. Part I.
of a mixture of pozzolana with calcareous matters. men likewise, who
them off as materials for liinc Elna At Lintini, and in places around it, there are diftinet and for building, conspire to deface them. beds of pozzolana, scoriæ, and real lava, as well as No fewer than 77 cities, towns, and villages, are others in which all these matters are blended together scattered over the sides of Etna. They are most nuin a mass of calcareous matter. At Palazzolo, about merous on the fouth side, where the temperature of 24 miles from the city of Syracuse, the sides of the the air is milder than on the north. Reckoning those hills having been cut by the streams which run down cities, towns, and villages, one with another, to conthem, in many places to a considerable depth, display tain each 1200 or 1500 louls, the whole number of huge masses of lava, and extensive beds of pozzolana. the inhabitants of mount Etna 'will then be 92,400, In the neighbourhood of Noro there are allo volcanic or 115,500. But it is certainly much more confiderable. productions to be found.
On plate CLXXXIV. is exhibited a view of the Fig. 1. At Pachino, where the island of Sicily forms an north-eait fide of the mountain, taken at sea. The angle, there are a range of hills extending for several lower part presents to the eye very extensive plains en
the northmiles, which confift all of pozzolana.
tirely covered with lava of different thickness, on which
call file of The province of Val de Noto is more homogene- vegetation has not yet made any progrefs. ous in the matters of which its soil confifts, than the nearer the shore the more barren is the ground; while tain, two other dales of Sicily, These, in every hill which the fertility of the soil increases as we advance farther they contain, exhibit a vast variety of different matters. inwards. The mountain is every where full of vait So amazing, indeed, is that variety, that they may be excavations; which our author conliders as a proof, considered as exhibiting a collection of specimens of that instead of increasing in bulk, it is actually in a
3 all the different materials which enter into the compo- ftate of decay and dininution. The vast torrents of Supposed fition of the globe. In those two dales few volcanic lava, which everspread the fides of it from time to 'o be in a
ftate of de productions have been yet observed. But it is not to time, he considers as infuíficient to repair the waite
the same time the mercury at Catania, placed only one The waters of the sea have, in former times, risen foot above the level of the fea, ftood at 28 inches 2t's much higher than at present. But how they retreated, lines; which must be reduced to 28 inches of lines, on or whether they are to continue stationary at their account of the necessary corrections for the thermoprefent height, we know not. For more than 2000 years, during which Sicily has been inhabited, and has From Giana our author had an opportunity of con- Mountains. had cities and harbours, the sea has not been ob- templating the vast number of calcareous mounts of calcarcserved either to recede or encroach in any considerable scattered over that part of Etna; which (he says) degree.
are nothing more than fragments, the slender re: When the sea subsided from mount Etna, the moun mains of those enormous masses which have been des tain must have been covered over with such matters as posited all around the base of mount Etna; and are a the sea usually deposits; consequently with calcare. very curious monument of the revolutions which this ous matters. A part of those matters would be in. mountain has undergone." They are of a true calca. durated by the action of the atmosphere, while the reous nature ; and the inhabitants are accustomed to: relt would be carried down by the rain-waters, and supply themselves with limestone from them. They again conveyed into the ocean. The torrents of rain- also use the stones of which these mounts are comwater which pour down the sides of mount Etna have posed for the purposes of building ; as the lava is furrowed its lides, by cutting out for themselves chan- so hard that it cannot be cut without the greateit nels; and they have removed from its fummit, and are difficulty, and they have no other stone in these parts. still removing to a farther distance, all the extraneous Leaving this place, our author travelled over several bodies upon it. In many places, they flow at present extensive plains of lava, covered on each side of the over a channel of lava, having cut through all the way with stunted trees, but without any cultivation ; matters which lay above it : ftill, however, there re the lava being of that kind which is very
unfavourable main in many places both calcareous matter and other to the growth of vegetables. Arriving at St Le... marine productions, which show that this volcano has onardu, he observed the course of the eruption of wabeen once covered by the waters of the ocean. But ter in 1755, and which is mentioned under the former these are daily wasting away ; not only the rains, but article Ærna.