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CHAPTER LVII.

Tfif TURKS OF THE HOUSE OF SELJUK.—THEIR REVOLT AGAifJT MAHMUD

CONQUEROR OF HINDOSTAN.—TOGRUL SUBDUES PERSIA, AND PROTECTS

THE CALIPHS. DEFEAT AND CAPTIVITY OF THE EMPEROR ROMANU9

DIOGEKES BY ALP ARSLAN. POWER AND MAGNIFICENCE OF MALES

IHAH.—CONQUEST OF ASIA MINOR AND SYRIA.—STATE AND OPPRES-

SION OF JERUSALEM.—PILGRIMAGES TO THE HOLY SEPULCHRE.

k •. fAOK

The Turks, ..499

907—1028. Mahmud the Gaznevide, 499

His twelve Expeditions into Hindostan 501

His Character 503

980—1028. Manners and Emigration of the Turks, or Turkmans, 505

1038. They defeat the Gaznevides, and subdue Persia 507

1038—1152. Dynasty of the Seljukians 507

1038—1063. Reign and Character of Togrul Beg 508

1055. He delivers the Caliph of Bagdad 509

His Investiture, 510

1063. And Death, 511

1050. The Turks invade the Roman Empire, 511

1063—1072. Reign of Alp Arslan 512

1065—1068. Conquest of Armenia and Georgia, 512

1068—1071. The Emperor Romanus Diogenes, 513

1071. Defeat of the Romans, 515

Captivity and Deliverance of the Emperor, 516

1072 Death of Alp Arslan, 519

1072—1092. Reign and Prosperity of Malek Shah 520

1092. His Death 522

Division of the Seljukian Empire 523

1074—1084. Conquest of Asia Minor by the Turks, 524

The Seljukian Kingdom of Roum 526

638—1099. State and Pilgrimage of Jerusalem, .• 528

969—1076. Under the Fatimite Caliphs 530

1003. Sacrilege of Hakem, 532

1024. Increase of Pilgrimages 533

• 076—1096. Conquest of Jerusalem by the Turks, 524

CHAPTER LVIII.

Oe:»in And Numbers Of The First Crusade.Characters Of Thp
Latin Princes. Their March To Constantinople. Policy 0
Thjc Greek Kmi'erok Alexius.Conquest Of Nice Antioc ,
Mn Jerusalem By The Franks. Deliverance Of The Hi .1
sErrc-CHRE.—Godfrey Of Bouillon, First Kino Of Jerusalem -

1098. Victory of the Crusaders, 583

Their Famine and Distress at Antioch, 583

Legend of the Holy Lance 585

Celestial Warriors 587

The State of the Turks and Caliph* of Egypt, 588

1098 1099. Delay of the Franks 59C

1099 Their March to Jerusalem, 590

Siege and Conquest of Jerusalem Ml

I MP V100. Election and Reign of Godfrey of Bouillon, 594

i 03P Battle of Ascalon, 593

999 -1187. The Kingdom of Jerusalem 596

<H>» -1369. Assise of Jerusalem 59{'

Court of Peers, 601

Law of Judicial Combats, 604

Court of Burgesses 603

8yrians 303

Villains and Slaves 604

AJ

HISTORY

OF

THE DECLINE AND FALL

OF THE

ROMAN EMPIRE.

CHAPTER XLIX.

fNTRODUCTION, WORSHIP, AND PERSECUTION OF IMAGES.

REVOLT OF ITALY AND ROME. TEMPORAL DOMINION OF

THE POPES. CONQUEST OF ITALY BY THE FRANKS. ES

TABLISHMENT OF IMAGES. CHARACTER AND CORONATION

OF CHARLEMAGNE. RESTORATION AND DECAY OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE IN THE WEST. INDEPENDENCE OF ITALY.—

CONSTITUTION OF THE GERMANIC BODY.

Ik the connection of the church and state, I have considered tlie former as subservient only, and relative, to the latter; a salutary maxim, if in fact, as well a» in narrative, it had ever been held sacred. The Oriental philosophy of the Gnostics, the dark abyss of predestination and grace, and the strange transformation of the Eucharist from the sign to the substance of Christ's body,' I have purposely abandoned to the curiosity of speculative divines. But I have reviewed, with diligence and pleasure, the objects of ecclesiastical history, by which

1 The learned Selden has given the history of transubatantiation in » comprehensive and pithy sentence: "This opinion is only rhetoric turned into logic," (his Works, vol iii. p. 2073, in his Table-Talk)

the decline and fall of the Roman empire were materially ftffftjted, the propagation of Christianity, the constitution of the Catholic church, the niir. t' Paganism, and the sects thai arose from the mysterious controversies concerning the Trinitj and incarnation. At the head of this class, we may justly rant the worship of images, so fiercely disputed in the eighth anc ninth centuries; since a question of popular superstition pro duced the revolt of Italy, the temporal power of the popes, and the restoration of the Roman empire in the West.

The primitive Christians were possessed with an unconquerable repugnance to the use and abuse of images; and this aversion may be ascribed to their descent from the Jews, and their enmity to the Greeks The Mosaic law had severely proscribed all representations of the Deity; and that precept was firmly established in the principles and practice of the chosen people. The wit of the Christian apologists was Dointed against the foolish idolaters, who bowed before the workmanship of their own hands; the images of brass and marble, which, had they been endowed with sense and motion, should have started rather from the pedestal to adore the creative powers of the artist.1 Perhaps some recent and imper feet converts of the Gnostic tribe might crown the statues of Christ and St. Paul with the profane honors which they paid to those of Aristotle and Pythagoras ;s but the public religion of the Catholics was uniformly simple and spiritual; and the first notice of the use of pictures is in the censure of the council of Illiberis, three hundred years after the Christian aera. Under the successors of Constantine, in the peace and luxury of the triumphant church, the more prudent bishops condescended to indulge a visible superstition, for the benefit of the multitude; and, after the ruin of Paganism, they were no longer restrained by the apprehension of an odious parallel. The first introduction of a symbolic worship was in the veneration of the cross, and of relics. The saints and martyrs, whose inter

'Nee intelligunt homines ineptissimi. quod si sentire simulacra et moveri possent, adoratura hominem fuissent a quo sunt expolita, (Divin. Institute 1. ii. c. 2.) Lactantius is the last, as well as the most eloquent, of the Latin apologists. Their raillery of idols attacks not onlt the object, but the form and matter.

1 See Irenreus, Epiphanius, and Augustin, (Basnage. Hist, des Egli tee Reformoes, torn. ii. p. 1313.) This Gnostic practice has a singulai affinity with the private worship of Alexander Severus, (Lampridiua. e. $9. Lardner, Heathen Testimonies, voL iii. p. 34.)

cession was implored, were seated on the right hand if G A\ but the gracious and often supernatural favors, which, in the popular belief, were showered round their tomb, conveyed an unquestionable sanction of the devout pilgrims, who visited, and touched, and kissed these lifeless remains, the memorials cf their merits and sufferings.4 But a memorial, more interesting than the skull or the sandals of a departed worthy, is Jie faithful copy of his person and features, delineated by the arts of painting or sculpture. In every age, such copies, so congenial to human feelings, have been cherished by the zeal of private friendship, or public esteem: the images of the Roman emperors were adored with civil, and almost religious, honors; a reverence less ostentatious, but more sincere, was applied to the statues of sages and patriots; and these profane virtues, these splendid sins, disappeared in the presence of the holy men, who had died for their celestial and everlasting country. At first, the experiment was made with caution and scruple; and the venerable pictures were discreetly allowed to instruct the ignorant, to awaken the cold, and to gratify the prejudices of the heathen proselytes. By a slow though inevitable progression, the honors of the original were transferred to the copy: the devout Christian prayed before the image of a saint; and the Pagan rites of genuflection, luminaries, and incense, again stole into the Catholic church. The scruples of reason, or piety, were silenced by the strong evidence of visions and miracles; and the pictures which speak, and move, and bleed, must be endowed with a divine energy, and may be considered as the proper objects of religious adoration. The most audacious pencil might tremble in the rash attempt of defining, by forms and colors, the infinite Spirit, the eter nal Father, who pervades and sustains the universe.* Bui the superstitious mind was more easily reconciled to paint and to worship the angels, and, above all, the Son of God, under the human shape, which, on earth, they have condescended to

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