reiice of the black nation: the religious communities were dis solved, the buildings were converted into magazines, or bar racks; the lands, movables, and cattle were confiscated; and our modern precedents will support the charge, that much wan ton or malicious havoc was exercised against the relics, and even the books of the monasteries. With the habit and profession of monks, the public and private worship of images was rigorously proscribed; and it should seem, that a solemn objuration of idolatry was exacted from the subjects, or at least from the clergy, of the Eastern empire."

The patient East abjured, with reluctance, her sacred images; they were fondly cherished, and vigorously defended, by the independent zeal of the Italians. In ecclesiastical rank and jurisdiction, the patriarch of Constantinople and the pope of Rome were nearly equal. But the Greek prelate was a domestic slave under the eye of his master, at whose nod he alternately passed from the convent to the throne, and from the throne to the convent. A distant and dangerous station, amidst the Barbarians of the West, excited the spirit and freedom of the Latin bishops. Their popular election endeared them to the Romans: the public and private indigence was relieved by their ample revenue; and the weakness or neglect of the emperors compelled them to consult, both in peace and war, the temporal safety of the city. In the school of adversity the priest insensibly imbibed the virtues and the ambition of a prince; the same character was assumed, the same policy was adopted, by the Italian, the Greek, or the Syrian, who ascended the chair of St. Peter; and, after the loss of her legions and provinces, the genius and fortune of the popes again restored the supremacy of Rome. It is agreed, that in the eighth century, their dominion was founded on rebellion, and that the rebellion was produced, and justified, by the heresy of the Iconoclasts; but the conduct of the second and third Gregory, in this memorable contest, is variously interpreted by the wishes of their friends and enemies. The Byzantine writers unanimously declare, that, after a fruitless admonition, they pronounced the separation of the

irith the dragoons (Dracones) of Louis XIV.; and highly solaces him lelf with the controversial pun.

36 YlpoypafjjjLa yap ctexijUpe' Kara naaav i^ap^iav rriv viro rrjs \H(H>i tirov, Travras iTToypaxli"' Kai dfnvvat roS adcrrjaat rriv i:pi>(TKVvri<riv nlii

rrrroij' tixovoiv, (Pamascea Op. torn. i. p. 625.) This oath and sub •fliption I do not remember to have seen /n any modern compilation East and West, and deprived the sacrilegious tyrant of the revenue and sovereignty of Italy. Their excommunication is still more dearly expressed by the Greeks, who beheld th« accomplishment of the papal triumphs; and as they are more strongly attached to their religion than to their country, the) praise, instead of blaming, the zeal and orthodoxy of thest apostolical men.116 The modern champions of Rome are •?ager to accept the praise and the precedent: this great and glorious example of the deposition of royal heretics is celebrated by the cardinals Baronius and Bellarmine;" and if they are asked, why the same thunders were not hurled against the Neros and Julians of antiquity, they reply, that the weakness of the primitive church was the sole cause of her patient loyalty.*8 On this occasion the effects of love and hatred are the same; and the zealous Protestants, who seek to kindle the indignation, and to alarm the fears, of prince»? and magistrates, expatiate on the insolence and treason of the two Gregories against their lawful sovereign."9 They are defended only by the moderate Catholics, for the most part, of the Gallican church,80 who respect the saint, without

Kni rr\v 'pohi7)i/ ovv iruffi/ IruAtrt rrjs 0aai\eias avroii airiat'i?a t..

says Theophanes, (Chronograph, p. 843.) For this Gregory is styled by Cedrenus <Mp imatS\iKos, (p. 450.) Zonaras specifies the thunder, ai/aBf)jnart awoiixii, (toin. ii. 1. xv. p. 104, 105.) It may be ob served, that the Greeks are apt to confound the times and actions of two Gregories.

"See Baronius, Annal. Eccles. A. D. 730, No. 4, 5; dignum exemplum! Bellarmin. de Romano Pontifice, 1. v. c. 8: mulctavit eum parte imperii. Sigonius, de Regno Italian, 1. iii. Opera, torn. ii. p. 169. Yet such is the change of Italy, that Sigonius is corrected by the editor of Milan, Philipus Argelatus, a Bolognese, and subject of the pope

88 <4uod si Christian! oliui nun deposuerunt Neronem aut Julianum. id fuit quia deerant vires temporales Christianis, (honest Bellarminc, de Rom. Pont. 1. v. c. 7.) Cardinal Perron adds a distinction more honorable to the first Christians, but not more satisfactory to modern princes—the treason of heretics and apostates, who break their oath, o».lie their coin, and renounce their allegiance to Christ and his vicar, (Perroniana, p. 89.)

'" Take, as a specimen, the cautious Basnage (Hist. d'Eglise, p. 1350, 1351) and the vehement Spanheim, (Hist. Imaginum,) who, with a hundred more, tread in the footsteps of the centuriators of Magdefcurgh.

8C See Launoy, (Opera, torn. v. pars ii. epist, vii. 7, p. 456 -474,) Na talis Alexander, (Hist. Nov. Testamenti, secul. viii. dissert, i. p 92— •6,) Pagi, (Critica, torn. iii. p. 215, 216,) and Giannone, (Istoria Civile \ Napoli, torn. i. p. 317—320,) a disciple of the Gallican school In

approving the sin. These common advocates of the crown and the mitre circumscribe the truth of facts by the rule of equity, Scripture, and tradition, and appeal to the evidence of the Latins," and the lives" and epistles of the popes them •elves.

Two original epistles, from Gregory the Second to the em peror Leo, are still extant;33 and if they cannot be praisoa as the most perfect models of eloquence and logic, thty sxhibit the portrait, or at least the mask, of the founder of the papal monarchy. "During ten pure and fortunate years,' says Gregory to the emperor, "we have tasted the annual comfort of your royal letters, subscribed in purple ink, with your own hand, the sacred pledges of your attachment to the orthodox creed of our fathers. How deplorable is the change! how tremendous the scandal! You now accuse the Catholics of idolatry; and, by the accusation, you betray your own impiety and ignorance. To this ignorance we are compelled to adapt the grossness of our style and arguments: the first elements of holy letters are sufficient for your confusion; and were you to enter a grammar-school, and avow yourself the

the field of controversy I always pity the moderate party, -who stand on the open middle ground exposed to the fire of both sides.

31 They appeal to Paul Warnefrid, or Diaconus, (de Gestis Langobard. 1. vi. c. 49, p. 506, 507, in Script. Ital. Muratori. torn. i. pars i.,) and the nominal Anastasius, (de Vit. Pont, in Muratori, torn iii. pars i. Gregorius II. p. 154. Gregorius III. p. 158. Zacharias, p. 161. Stephanus III. p. 165. Paulus, p. 172. Stephanus IV. p. 174. Hadrianus, p. 179. Leo III. p. 195.) Yet I may remark, that the true Anastasius (Hist. Eccles. p. 134, edit. Reg.) and the Historia Miscella, (1. xxi. p.-151, in torn, i. Script. Ital.,) both of the ixth century, translate and approve the Greek text of Theophanes.

34 With some minute difference, the most learned critics, Lucas Holstenius, Schelestrate, Ciampini. Bianchini, Muratori, (Prolegomena ad torn. iii. pars i.,) are agreed that the Liber Pontificalis was composed and Cf ntinued by the apostolic librarians and notaries of thei riiith and ixJi centuries; and that the last and smallest part is the work of Anastasius, whose name it bears. The style is barbarous, the narrative partial, the details are trifling—yet it must be read as a curious and authentic record of the times. The epistles of the popes we dispersed in the volumes of Councils.

"The two epistles of Gregory II. have been preserved in the Actn if the Nicene Council, (torn. viii. p. 651—674.) They are without a iate, which is variously fixed, by Baronius in the year 726, by Muratori (Annali d' Italia, torn, v p. 120) in 729, and by Pagi in 730. 3uch is the force of prejudice, that some papixts have prais<;(l the J^km! sense and moderation of these letters.

enemy of our worship, the simple and pious children would be provoked to cast their horn-books at your head." After this decent salutation, the pope attempts the usual distinction between the idols of antiquity and the Christian images. The former were the fanciful representations of phantoms cr dasmons, at a time when the true God had not manifested his person in any visible likeness. The latter are the genuine forms of Christ, his mother, and his saints, who had approved, by a crowd of miracles, the innocence and merit of this relative worship. He must indeed have trusted to the ignorance of Leo, since he could assert the perpetual use or images, from the apostolic age, and their venerable presence in thr six synods of the Catholic churcb. A more specious argu ment is drawn from present possession and recent practice . the harmony of the Christian world supersedes the demand of a general council; and Gregory frankly confesses, thai such assemblies can only be useful under the reign of aB orthodox prince. To the impudent and inhuman Leo, more guilty than a heretic, he recommends peace, silence, and implicit obedience to his spiritual guides of Constantinople and Rome. The limits of civil and ecclesiastical powers are defined by the pontiff. To the former he appropriates the body; to the latter, the soul: the sword of justice is in the hands of the magistrate: the more formidable weapon of excommunication is intrusted to the clergy; and in the exercise of their divine commission a zealous son will not spare his offending father: the successor of St. Peter may lawfully chastise the kings of the earth. "You assault us, O tyrant! with a carnal and military hand: unarmed and naked we can only implore the Christ, the prince of the heavenly host, that he will send unto you a devil, for the destruction of your body and the salvation of your soul. You declare, with foolish arrogance, I will despatch my orders to Rome: I will break in pieces the image of St. Peter; and Gregory, like his predecessor Martin, shall be transported in chains, and in exile, to the foot of the Imperial throne. Would to God that I might be permitted to tread in the footsteps of the holy Martin! but may the fate of Constans serve as a warning to the persecutors of the church! After his just condemnation by the bishops of Sicity, the tyrant was cut off. in the fulness i>{ his sins, by a domestic servant: the saint is still adored by the nations of Scythia, among whom he ended his banishment Mid his life. But it is our d ity to live for the edification and support of the faithful people; nor are we leduced to risk our safety on the event of a comhat. Incapable as you art of defending your Roman subjects, the maritime situation of the city may perhaps expose it to your depredation ■ but w« can remove to the distance of four-and-twenty stadia, to the

first fortress of the Lombards, and then you may pursue

the winds. Are you ignorant that the popes are the bond of union, the mediators of peace, between the East and West? The eyes of the nations are fixed on our humility; and they revere, as a God upon earth, the apostle St. Peter, whoso image you threaten to destroy.85 The remote and interior kingdoms of the West present their homage to Christ and his vicegerent; and we now prepare to visit one of their most powerful monarchs, who desires to receive from our hands the sacrament of baptism." The Barbarians have submitted to the yoke of the gospel, while you alone are deaf to the voice of the shepherd. These pious Barbarians are kindled into rage: they thirst to avenge the persecution of the East. Abandon your rash and fatal enterprise; reflect, tremble, and repent. If you persist, we are innocent of the blood that will be spilt in the contest; may it fall on your own head!"

The first assault of Leo against the images of Constantinople had been witnessed by a crowd of strangers from Italy and the West, who related with grief and indignation the sacrilege of the emperor. But on the reception of his proscriptive edict, they trembled for their domestic deities: the images of Christ and the Virgin, of the angels, martyrs, and

34 E(*offi re'aaapa crania viro^copnaEi b 'Ap^iEpciif 'Pw/irii tit T'l" \btpm Kuiumrfnf, xal viraye fiicofoi/ ruvq diifiovi, (Epist. i. p. 664.) This

proximity of the Lombards is hard of digestion. Camillo Pellegrini (Dissert, iv. de Ducatii Beneventi, in the Script. Ital. torn. v. p. 172, ITS) forcibly reckons the xxivth stadia, not from Rome, but from the limits of the Roman duchy, to the first fortress, perhaps Sora, of the Lombards. I rather believe that Gregory, with the pedantry of thn »ge, employs stadia for miles, without much inquiry into the genuine measure.

** "Ov ui miaou 0aai\ciai rij? Siaews Gjj Qeov tTriyewv fvotxri.

*e 'ato irij? iawrepov ciiasois Tov \eyoftii/or> ErrrcroS, (p. 665.) The

pope appears to have imposed on the ignorance of the Greeks: he lived and died in the Lateran; and in his time all the kingdoms of the West had embrace 1 Christianity. May not this unknown Scjtctut have some reference to the chief of the Saxon Heptarchy, to Ilia king of W«ssex, who, in the pontificate of Gregory the Second, visited EoiT' *br the purpose, not of baptism, but of pilgrimage f (I'ftgi A.' S9, No. 2. A. D. 726, No. 16.)

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