tumorous festivals of the Greek calendar. treasure ihat was saved by Theodora and Basil the Second will suggest a splendid, though indefinite, idea.of their supplies and resources. The mother of Michael, before she retired to a cloister, attempted to check or expose the prodigality of her ungrateful son, by a free and faithful account of the wealth which he inherited; one hundred and nine thousand pounds of gold, and three hundred thousand of silver, I he fruits of her own economy and that of her deceased husband." The avarice of Basil is not less renowned than his valor and fortune: his victorious armies were paid and rewarded without breaking into the mass of two hundred thousand pounds of gold, (about eight millions sterling.) which he had buried in the subterraneous vaults of the palace." Such accumulation of treasure is rejected by the theory and practice of modern policy; and we are more apt to compute the national riches by the use and abuse of the public credit. Yet the maxims of antiquity are still embraced by a monarch formidable to his enemies; by a republic respectable to her allies; and both have attained their respective ends of military power and domestic tranquillity.

Whatever might be consumed for the present wants, or reserved for the future use, of the state, the first and most sacred demand was for the pomp and pleasure of the emperor, and his discretion only could define the measure of his private expense. The princes of Constantinople were far removed from the simplicity of nature; yet, with the revolving seasons, they were led by taste or fashion to withdraw to a purer air, from the smoke and tumult of the capital. They enjoyed, or affected to enjoy, the rustic festival of the vintage: their leisure was amused by the exercise of tbe chase and the calmer occupation of fishing, and in the summer heats, they were shaded from the sun, and refreshed by the cooling breezes from the sea. The coasts and islands of Asia and Europe were covered with their magnificent villas; but, instead of the modest art which secretly strives to hide itself and to decorate the scenery of nature, the marble structure of theii

"See the continuator of Theaphanes, (1. iv. p 107,) Cedrei>-is, (p tH) and Zonaras, (torn. ii. 1 xvi. p. 157.)

"Zonaras, (torn. ii. 1 xvii. p. 225,) instead of pound;, uses tbe mor« r lassie appellation of talents, which, in a literal sense and strict c^a.w* tution, would multiply sixty fold the treasure of Basil.

gardens served only to expose the riches of the lord, and tin labors of the architect. The successive casualties of inheritance and forfeiture had rendered the sovereign proprietor of many stately houses in the city and suburbs, of which twelve were appropriated to the ministers of state; but the great palace,*' the centre of the Imperial residence, was fixec during eleven centuries to the same position, between the hip podrome, the cathedral of St. Sophia, and the gardens, which descended by many a terrace to the shores of the Propontis, The primitive edifice of the first Constantine was a copy, or rival, of ancient Rome; the gradual improvements of his successors aspired to emulate the wonder.', of the old world," and in the tenth century, the Byzantine palace excited the admiration, at least of the Latins, by an unquestionable pre eminence of strength, size, and magnificence.3' But the toil and treasure of so many ages had produced a vast and irregu lar pile: each separate building was marked with the character of the times and of the founder; and the want of space might excuse the reigning monarch, who demolished, perhaps with secret satisfaction, the works of his predecessors. The economy of the emperor Theophilus allowed a more free and ample scope for his domestic luxury and splendor. A favorite ambassador, who had astonished the Abbassides themselves by his pride and liberality, presented on his return the model of a palace, which the caliph of Bagdad had recently constructed on the banks of the Tigris. The model was instantly copied and surpassed: the new buildings of Theophilus,4

11 For a copious and minute description of the Imperial palace, see the Constantinop. Christiana (1. ii. c. 4, p. 113—123) of Ducange, the Tillemont of the middle ages. Never has laborious Germany produced two antiquarians more laborious and accurate than these two natives of lively France.

M The Byzantine palace surpasses the Capitol, the palace of Pergamue the Rutinian wood, {QalSpov ayu>,;«,) the temple of Adrian at Cyzicus, the pyramids, the Pharus, &c, according to an epigram (Antholig. Graec. 1. iv. p. 488, 489. Brodaei, apud Wechel) ascribed i> Julian, ex-praefect of Egypt. Seventy-one of his epigrams, som lively, are collected in Brunck, (Analect. Graec. torn. ii. p. 493—510; but this is wanting.

"Constantinopolitanum Palatium nun pulchritudinc solum, verum fttiam fcrtitudine, omnibus quas unquam videram munitionibus pray *ta% (Liutprand, Hist. 1. v. c. 9, p. 465.)

1 S«e the anonymous continuator of Theophanes, (p. 59. 61 86,) whom I have followed in the neat and concise abstract of lie Bsau, (Hint, du Bag Empire, torn. xiv. a 436 438.)

w?re accompanied with gardens, and with five churches, on« of which was conspicuous for size and beauty: it was crowned with three domes, the roof of gilt brass reposed on columns of Ttalian marble, and the walls were incrusted with marbles of various colors. In the face of the church, a semicircular portico, of the figure and name of the Greek sigma, was sup ported by fifteen columns of Phrygian marble, and the subter laneous vaults were of a similar construction. The squaw before the sigma was decorated with a fountain, and the margin of the basin was lined and encompassed with plates of silver. In the beginning of each season, the basin, instead of water, was replenished with the most exquisite fruits, which were abandoned to the populace for the entertainment of the prince. He enjoyed this tumultuous spectacle from a throne resplendent with gold and gems, which was raised by a marble staircase to the height of a lofty terrace. Below the throne were seated the officers of his guards, the magistrates, the chiefs of the factions of the circus; the inferior steps were occupied by the people, and the place below was covered with troops of dancers, singers, and pantomimes. The square was surrounded by the hall of justice, the arsenal, and the various offices of business and pleasure; and the purple chamber was named from the annual distribution of robes of scarlet and purple by the hand of the empress herself. The long series of the apartments was adapted to the seasons, and decorated with marble and porphyry, with painting, sculpture, and mosaics, with a profusion of gold, silver, and precious stones. His fanciful magnificence employed the skill and patience of such artists as the times could afford: but the taste of Athens would have despised their frivolous and costly labors; a golden tree, with its leaves and branches, which sheltered a multitude of birds warbling their artificial notes, and two lions of massy gold, and of natural size, who looked and roared like their brethren of the forest. The successors of Theophilus, of the Basilian and Comnenian dynasties, were not less ambitious of leaving some memorial of their residence; and the portion of the palace most splendid and august was dignified with the title of the golden triclinium?* With becoming modesty, the rich and noble Greeks aspired to imi

• In aureo triclinio quse ptastantior est pars potentissimua (tht iwurper Romanvs) degens creteras partes (filiis) distribuerat, (Lmt praiid. Hist. 1. v. c 9. p. 4*59.) For this last signification of Tricliniuuv tate their sovereign, and when they passed through the streets on horseback, in their robes of silk and embroidery, they were mistaken by the children for kings.*6 A matron of Peloponnesus," who had cherished the infant fortunes of Basil the Macedonian, was excited by tenderness or vanity to visit the greatness of her adopted son. In a journey of five hundred miles from Patras to Constantinople, her age or indolence leclined the fatigue of a horse or carriage: the soft litter or )ed of Danielis was transported on the shoulders of ten robust slaves; and as they were relieved at easy distances, a band of three hundred were selected for the performance of this service. She was entertained in the Byzantine palace with filial reverence, and the honors of a queen; and whatever might be the origin of her wealth, her gifts were not unworthy of the regal dignity. 1 have already described the fine and curious manufactures of Peloponnesus, of linen, silk, and woollen; but the most acceptable of her presents consisted in three hundred beautiful youths, of whom one hundred were eunuchs ;38 "for she was not ignorant," says the historian, "that the air of the palace is more congenial to such insects, than a shepherd's dairy to the flies of the summer." During her lifetime, she bestowed the greater part of her estates in Peloponnesus, and her testament instituted Leo, the son of Basil, her universal heir. After the payment of the legacies, fourscore villas or farms were added to the Imperial domain; and three thousand slaves uf Danielis were enfranchised by their new lord, and transplanted as a colony to the Italian coast. From this example of a private matron, we may estimate the wealth and magnificence of the emperors. Yet our enjoy

(a;dificium tria vel plura *X«vg scilicet arcyri complectens,) see Ducange (Gloss. Graec. et Observations sur Joinville, p. 240) and Reiske, (ad Constantinum de Ceremoniis, p. 7.)

s" In equis vecti (says Benjamin of Tudela) regum filiis viden*''. persinules. I prefer the Latin version of Constantine l'Empereur (p. 46) to the French of Baratier, (torn. i. p. 49.)

S,T See the account of her journey, munificence, and testament, in the life of Basil, by his grandson Constantine, (p. 74, 75, 76, p. 195— 197.)

88 Carsamatium (K.iofr/W??. Ducange, Gloss.) Graeci vocant, anjput.U is tirilibus et virga, pueruni eunuchum quos Verdunenses mercatoree ob inimensum lucrum facere solent et in Hispaniam ducere, (Liutpran I, L ri. c. 3, p. 470.).—The last abomination of the abominable slave-trt Jel Y*t 1 am surprised to find, in the xth century, such activf *peculat ""Of »f commerce in Lorraine.

ments are confined by a narrow circle; and, whatsoever may oe its value, the luxury of life is possessed with more innocence and safety by the master of his own, than by the steward of the public, fortune.

In an absolute government, which levels the distinctions cf noble and plebeian birth, the sovereign is the sole fountain }f honor; and the rank, both in the palace and the empire, lepends on the titles and offices which are bestowed and esumed by his arbitrary will. Above a thousand years, from Vespasian to Alexius Comnenus,89 the Ccesar was the second person, or at least the second degree, after the supreme title of Augustus was more freely communicated to the sons and brothers of the reigning monarch. To elude without violating his promise to a powerful associate, the husband of his sister, and, without giving himself an equal, to reward the piety of his brother Isaac, the crafty Alexius interposed a new and supereminent dignity. The happy flexibility of the Greek tongue allowed him to compound the names of Augustus and Emperor (Sebastos and Autocrator,) and the union produce: the sonorous title of Sebastocrator. He was exalted above the Ceesar on the first step of the throne: the public acclamations repeated his name; and he was only distinguished from the sovereign by some peculiar ornaments of the head and feet. The emperor alone could assume the purple or red buskins, and the close diadem or tiara, which imitated the fashion of the Persian kings.40 It was a high pyramidal cap of cloth or silk, almost concealed by a profusion of pearls and jewels: the crown was formed by a horizontal circle and two arches of gold: at the summit, the point of their intersection, was placed a globe or cross, and two strings or lappets of pearl depended on either cheek. Instead of red, the buskins of the Sebastocrator and Caesar were green; and on their open coronets or crowns, the precious gems were more sparingly distributed. Beside and below the Caesar the fancy of Alexius created the Panhyper sebastos and the Protosebastos, whose

"See the Alexiad iL iii. p. 78, 79) of Anna Comnena, who, except in filial piety, may be compared to Mademoiselle de Montpensier. In her awful reverence for titles and forms, she styles her father 'einitrrtfionipx^, the inventor of this royal art, the ri^vq «<gi«3», and

*3 Urififta, BTi&avoi, StaAnp"; see Reiske, ad Ceremoniale, p. 14, 15 Ducange has given a learned dissertation on the crowns of Constant* nople, Rome, France, <fcc, (sur Joinville, xxv. p. 289—303 ;) but of hu thirty-four models, none exactly tally with Anne's description

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