wisdom, which is too often confounded with the practice cf dissimulation and deceit; and Robert is praised by the Apulian poet for excelling the cunning of Ulysses and the eloquence of Cicero. Yet these arts were disguised by an appearance of military frankness: in his highest fortune, he was accessible and courteous to his fellow-soldiers; and while he indulged the prejudices of his new subjects, he affected in his dress and manners to maintain the ancient fashion of his country. He grasped with a rapacious, that he might distribute with a liberal, hand: his primitive indigence had taught the habits of frugality; the gain of a merchant was not below his attention; and his prisoners were tortured with slow and unfeeling cruelty, to force a discovery of their secret treasure. According to the Greeks, he departed from Normandy with only five followers on horseback and thirty on foot; yet even this allowance appears too bountiful: the sixth son of Tancred of Hauteville passed the Alps as a pilgrim; and his first military band was levied among the adventurers of Italy. His brothers and countrymen had divided the fertile lands of Apulia; but they guarded their shares with the jealousy of avarice; the aspiring youth was driven forwards to the mountains of Calabria, and in his first expioits against the Greeks and the natives, it is not easy to discriminate the hero from the robber. To surprise a castle or a convent, to ensnare a wealthy citizen, to plunder the adjacent villages for necessary food, were the obscure labors which formed and exercised the powers of his mind and body. The volunteers of Normandy adhered to his standard; and, under his command, the peasants of Calabria assumed the name and character of Normans.

As the genius of Robert expanded with his fortune, he awakened the jealousy of his elder brother, by whom, in a transient quarrel, hi^ life was threatened and his liberty restrained. After the death of Humphrey, the tender age of his sons excluded them from the command; they wore reduced to a private estate, by the ambition of their guardian and uncle; and Guiscard was exalted on a buckler, and saluted count of Apulia and general of the republic. With an inereas* of authority and of force, he resumed the conquest of Calabria, and soon aspired to a rank that should raise him forevei above the heads of his equals. By some acts of rapine cr sacrilege, he had incurred a papal excommunication; but Nicholas the Second was easily persuaded that the divisioni of friends could terminate only in their mutual prejudice; that

the Normans were the faithful champions of the Holy See; and it was safer to trust the alliance of a prince than the caprice of an aristocracy. A synod of one hundred bishops was convened at Melphi; and the count interrupted an important enterprise to guard the person and execute the decreet of the Roman pontiff. His gratitude and policy conferred on Robert and his posterity the ducal title,43 with the investiture tf Apulia, Calabria, and ail the lands, both in Italy and Sicily, which his sword could rescue from the schismatic Greeks and the unbelieving Saracens.44 This apostolic sanction might justify his arms; but the obedience of a free and victorious people could not be transferred without their consent; and Guiscard dissembled his elevation till the ensuing campaign had been illustrated by the conquest of Consenza and Keggio. In the hour of triumph, he assembled his troops, and solicited the Normans to confirm by their suffrage the judgment of the vicar of Christ: the soldiers hailed with joyful acclamations their valiant duke; and the counts, his former equals, pronounced the oath of fidelity with hollow smiles and secret indignation. After this inauguration, Robert styled himself, "By the grace of God and St. Peter, duke of Apulia, Calabria, and hereafter of Sicily;" and it was the labor of twenty years to deserve and realize these lofty appellations. Such iardy progress, in a narrow space, may seem unworthy of the ibilities of the chief and the spirit of the nation; but the Normans were few in number; their resources were scanty; their service was voluntary and precarious. The bravest designs of the duke rwere sometimes opposed by the free voice of his parliament of barons: the twelve counts of popular election conspired against his authority; and against their perfidious uncle, the sons of Humphrey demanded justice and revenge. By his policy and vigor, Guiscard discovered their

4S The acquisition of the ducal title by Robert Guiscard is a nice And obscure business. With the good advice of Giannone, Muratori, lind St. Marc, I have endeavored to form a consistent and probable narrative.

44 Baroniu? (Annal. Eccles. A D. 1059, No. 69) has published the wiginal act. He professes to have copied it from the Liber Censuum, i Vatican MS. Yet a Liber Censuum of the xiith century lias been printed by Muratori, (Antiquit. Medii JEvi, torn. v. p. 851—908 ;) and the names of Vatican and Cardinal awaken the suspicions of a Protes Unt and even of a philosopher.

plots, suppressed their rebellions, and punished the guilty with death or exile: but in these domestic feuds, his years, and the national strength, were unprofitably consumed. After the defeat of his foreign enemies, the Greeks, Lombards, and Saracens, their broken forces retreated to the strong and pop ulous cities of the sea-coast. They excelled in the arts of fortification and defence; the Normans were accustomed to serve on horseback in the field, and their rude attempts could only succeed by the efforts of persevering courage. The resistance of Salerno was maintained above eight months; the siege or blockade of Bari lasted near four years. In these actions the Norman duke was the foremost in every danger; in every fatigue the last and most patient. As he pressed the citadel of Salerno, a huge stone from the rampart shattered one of his military engines; and by a splinter he was wounded in the breast. Before the gates of Bari, he lodged in a miserable hut or barrack, composed of dry branches, and thatched with straw; a perilous station, on all sides open to the inclemency of the winter and the spears of the enemy."

The Italian conquests of Robert correspond with the limits of the present kingdom of Naples; and the countries united by his arms have not been dissevered by the revolutions of seven hundred years." The monarchy has been composed of the Greek provinces of Calabria and Apulia, of the Lombard principality of Salerno, the republic of Amalphi, and the inland dependencies of the large and ancient duchy of Beneventum. Three districts only were exempted from the common law of subjection; the first forever, the two lasl till the middle of the succeeding century. The city and immediate territory of Benevento had been transferred, by gift or exchange, from the German emperor to the Roman pontiff: and although this holy land was sometimes invaded, the name of St. Peter was finally more potent than the sword of the Normans. Their first colony of Aversa subdued and held the state of Capua; and her princes were reduced to beg

*" Read the life of Guiscard in the second and third books of tht Apulian, the first and second books of Malaterra.

46 The conquests of Robert Guiscard and Roger I., the exemption ot Benevento and the xii provinces of the kingdom, are fairly exposed bi Gianuone in the second volume of his Istoria Civile, 1. ix. x. xi and 1 xvii. p. 460-—470. This modem division was not established lusfore th« time of Frederic II.

their bread before the palace of their fathers. The dukes of Naples, the present metropolis, maintained the popular freedom, under the shadow of the Byzantine empire. Among the new acquisitions of Guiscard, the science of Salerno,*' and the trade of Amalphi,48 may detain for a moment the curiosity of the reader. I. Of the learned faculties, juris prudence implies the previous establishment of laws and property; and theology may perhaps be superseded by the full light of religion and reason. But the savage and the sage must alike implore the assistance of physic; and, if our diseases are inflamed by luxury, the mischiefs of blows and wounds would be more frequent in the ruder ages of society. The treasures of Grecian medicine had been communicated to the Arabian colonies of Africa, Spain, and Sicily; and in the intercourse of peace and war, a spark of knowledge had been kindled and cherished at Salerno, an illustrious city, in which the men were honest and the women beautiful.4" A school, the first that arose in the darkness of Europe, was consecrated to the healing art: the conscience of monks and bishops was reconciled to that salutary and« lucrative profession; and a crowd of patients, of the most eminent rank, and most distant climates, invited or visited the physicians of Salerno. They were protected by the Norman conquerors; and Guiscard, though bred in arms, could discern the merit and value of a philosopher. After a pilgrimage of thirty-nine years, Constantine, an African Christian, returned from Bagdad, a master of the language and learning of the Arabians; and

47 Giannone, (torn, ii p. 119—127,) Muratori, (Antiquitat. Medii vEvi, torn. iii. dissert, xliv. p. 935, 936,) and Tiraboschi, (Istoria della Letteratura Italiana,) have given an historical account of these physicians; their medical knowledge and practice must be left to our physicians.

48 At the end of the Historia Tandectarum of Henry Brenckmann, (Trajecti ad Rhenum, 1722, in 4to.,) the indefatigable author has inserted two dissertations, de Republic!! Amalphitana, and de Amalphi a Pisanis direpta, which are built on the testimonies of one hundred acd forty writers. Yet he has forgotten two most important passages of the embassy of Liutprand, (A. D. 9 59.) which compare the trad* ud navigation of Amalphi with that of Venice.

*• Urbs Latii non est hac delitiosior urbe,

Frugibus, arboribus, vinoque redundat; et unde
Non tibi poma, nuces, non pulchra palatia desunt,
Non species muliebris abest probitisque virorum.

Gulielmus Appulus, 1. iii. p HI

8alerno was enriched by the practice, the lessens, and the writings of the pupil of Avicenna. The school of medicine has long slept in the name of a university; but her precepts are abridged in a string of aphorisms, bound together in the Leonine verses, or Latin rhymes, of the twelfth century." II. Seven miles to the west of Salerno, and thirty to the south of Naples, the obscure town of Amalphi displayed the power and rewards of industry. The land, however fertile, was of narrow extent; but the sea was accessible and open: the inhabitants first assumed the office of supplying the western world with the manufactures and productions of the East' and this useful traffic was the source of their opulence and freedom. The government was popular, under the administration of a duke and the supremacy of the Greek emperor. Fifty thousand citizens were numbered in the walls of Amalphi; nor was any city more abundantly provided with gold, silver, and the objects of precious luxury. The mariners who swarmed in her port, excelled in the theory and practice of navigation and astronomy: and the discovery of the compass, which has opened the globe, is owing to their ingenuity or good fortune. Their trade was extended to the coasts, or at least to the commodities, of Africa, Arabia, and India: and their settlements in Constantinople, Antioch, Jerusalem, and Alexandria, acquired the privileges of independent colonies.*1 After three hundred years of prosperity, Amalphi was oppressed by the arms of the Normans, and sacked by the jeal

*° Muratori carries their antiquity above the year (1066) of thfl leath of Edward the Confessor, the rex Anglorum to whom they are addressed. Nor is this date affected by the opinion, or rather mistake, of Pasquier (Recherches de la France, I. vii. a 2) and Ducange, (Glossar. Latin.) The practice of rhyming, as early as the vii'h century, was borrowed from the languages of the North and East. (Muni tori, Antiquitat. torn. iii. dissert, xl. p. 686—708.)

41 The description of Amalphi, by William the Apulian, ('. iii. p. 267,) contains much truth and some poetry, and the third Lne may b« applied to the sailor's compass:—

Nulla magis locuples argento, vestibus, auro

Partibus innumeris: hac plurimus urbe moratur

Nauta maris Vce.liqne vins aperire peritvs.

Hue et Alexandri di versa feruntlir ah urbe

Regis, et Antiochi Gens htec freta plurima transit.

His Arabes, Incli, Siculi nascuntur et Afri.

Htec gens est totum praore nobilitata per mhem,

ftt mercmndo forens. et araans mnrcata refert*.

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