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wisest, portion of the Turkmans" continued to dwell in th« tents of their ancestors; and, from the Oxus to the Euphrates, these military colonies were protected and propagated by their native princes. But the Turks of the court and city were refined by business and softened by pleasure: they imitated the dress, language, and manners of Persia; and the royal palaces of Nishabur and Rei displayed the order and magnificence of a great monarchy. The most deserving of the Arabians and Persians were promoted to the honors of the state; and the whole body of the Turkish nation embraced, with fervor and sincerity, the religion of Mahomet. The northern swarms of Barbarians, who overspread both Europe and Asia, have been irreconcilably separated by the consequences of a similar conduct. Among the Moslems, as among the Christians, their vague and local traditions have yielded to the reason and authority of the prevailing system, to the fame of antiquity, and the consent of nations. But the triumph of the Koran is more pure and meritorious, as it was not assisted by any visible splendor of worship which might allure the Pagans by some resemblance of idolatry. The first of the Seljukian sultans was conspicuous by his zeal and faith each day he repeated the five prayers which are enjoined to the true believers; of each week, the two first days were consecrated by an extraordinary fast; and in every city a mosch was completed, before Togrul presumed to lay the foundations of a palace."
With the belief of the Koran, the son of Seljuk imbibed a lively reverence for the successor of the prophet. But that sublime character was still disputed by the caliphs of Bagdad and Egypt, and each of. the rivals was solicitous to prove his title in the judgment of the strong, though illiterate Barbarians. Mahmud the Gaznevide had declared himself in favor of the line of Abbas; and had treated with indignity the robe of honor which was presented by the Fatimite ambassador. Yet the ungrateful Hashemite had changed with the change
"From William of Tyre I have borrowed this distinction of Turks and Turkmans, which at least is popular and convenient. The n lines are the same, and the addition of man is of the same import it. the Persic and Teutonic idioms. Few critics will adopt the etymoloj y of James de Vitry, (Hist. Hierosol. 1. i. c. 11 p. 1061,) of Turcoman!, \unn Turei et Cornani, a mixed people.
11 Hist. Generate des Huns, torn. iii. p. 165,166,167. M. De (b fnn quotes Abulrnahasen, an historian of Egypt.
of fortune; he applauded the victory of Zendecan, and named the Seljukian sultan his temporal vicegerent over the Moslem world. As Togrul executed and enlarged this important trust, he was called to the deliverance of the caliph Cayem, and obeyed the holy summons, which gave a new kingdom to his arms." In the palace of Bagdad, the commander of the faithful still slumbered, a venerable phantom. His servant or master, the prince of the Bowides, could no longer protect him from the insolence of meaner tyrants; and the Euphrates and Tigris were oppressed by the revolt of the Turkish and Arabian emirs. The presence of a conqueror was implored as a blessing; and the transient mischiefs of fire and sword were excused as the sharp but salutary remedies which alone could restore the health of the republic. At the head of an irresistible force, the sultan of Persia marched from Hamadan: the proud were crushed, the prostrate were spared; the prince of the Bowides disappeared; the heads of the most obstinate rebels were laid at the feet of Togrul; and he inflicted a lesson of obedience on the peorle of Mosul and Bagdad. After the chastisement of the guilty, and the restoration of peace, the royal shepherd accepted the reward of his labors; and a solemn comedy represented the triumph of religious prejudice over Barbarian power.*3 The Turkish sultan embarked on the Tigris, landed at the gate of Racca, and made his public entry on horseback. At the palace-gate he respectfully dismounted, and walked on foot, preceded by his emirs without arms. The caliph was seated behind his black veil: the black garment of the Abbassides was cast over his shoulders, and he held in his hand the staff of the apostle of God. Tho conqueror of the. East kissed the ground, stood some time in a modest posture, and was led towards the throne by the vizier and interpreter. After Togrul had seated himself on another throne, his commission was publicly read, which declared him the temporal lieutenant of the vicar of the prophet. He was successively invested with seven robes of honor, and presented with seven slaves, the natives of the
"Consult the Bibliotheque Orientale, in the articles of the Abbottidex, Caher, and Caiem, and the Annals of Elmacin and Abulphara* pus.
"For this curious ceremony, lam indebted to M. De Ouignes (torn, iii p. 197, 198,) and that learned author is obliged to Bondari, wh« composed in Arabic the history of the Seljukides, torn. v. p. 366 ) J tm ignorant of his age, country, and character.
leven climates of the Arabian empire. His mystic veil vva« perfumed with musk; two crowns * were placed on his head; two cimeters were girded to his side, as the symbols of a double reign over the East and West. After this inauguration, the sultan was prevented from prostrating himself a second time; but he twice kissed the hand of the commander of the faithful, and his titles were proclaimed by the voice of heralds and the applause of the Moslems. In a second visit to Bagdad, the Soljukian prince again rescued the caliph from his enemies and devoutly, on foot, led the bridle of his mule from the prison to the palace. Their alliance was cemented by the marriage of Togrul's sister with the successor of the prophet Without reluctance he had introduced a Turkish virgin into his harem; but Cayem proudly refused his daughter to the sultan, disdained to mingle the blood of the Hashemites with the blood of a Scythian shepherd; and protracted the negotiation many months, till the gradual diminution of his revenue admonished him that he was still in the hands of a master. The royal nuptials were followed by the death of Togrul himself;"f as he left no children, his nephew Alp Arslan succeeded to the title and prerogatives of sultan; and his name, after that of the caliph, was pronounced in the public prayers of the Moslems. Yet in this revolution, the Abbassides acquired a larger measure of liberty and power. On the throne of Asia, the Turkish monarchs were less jealous of the domestic administration of Bagdad; and the commanders of the faithful were relieved from the ignominious vexations to which they had been exposed by the presence and poverty of the Persian dynasty.
Since the fall of the caliphs, the discord and degeneracy of the Saracens respected the Asiatic provinces of Rome; which, by the victories of Nicephorus, Zimisces, and Basil, had been extended as far as Antioch and the eastern boundaries of Armenia. Twenty-five years after the death of Basil,
24 Eodem anno (A. H. 455) obiit princeps Togrulbecus rex fuit
demons, prudens, et peritus regnandi, cujus terror corda niortalium iivaserat, ita ut obedirent ei reges atque ad ipsum scribcrent. Elraa jin. Hist. Saracen, p. 342, vers. Erpenii.
* According to Von Hammer, "crowns" are incorrect They are uc to "n as a symbol of royalty in the East. V. Hammer, Osmanisclie G* •cJ ite, vol. f. p. 567.—M.
Ie died, being 75 years old. V. Hammer.—M
his successors were suddenly assaulted by an unknown race of Barbarians, who united the Scythian valor with the fanaticism of new proselytes, and the art and riches of a powerful monarchy." The myriads of Turkish horse overspread a frontier of six hundred miles from Tauris to Arzeroum, and the blood of one hundred and thirty thousand Christians was a grateful sacrifice to the Arabian prophet. Yet the arms of Togrul did not make any deep or lasting impression on the 9reek empire. The torrent rolled away from the open ountry; the sultan retired without glory or success from the siege of an Armenian city; the obscure hostilities were continued or suspended with a vicissitude of events; and the bravery of the Macedonian legions renewed the fame of the conqueror of Asia.28 The name of Alp Arslan, the valiant lion, is expressive of the popular idea of the perfection of man; and the successor of Togrul displayed the fierceness and generosity of the royal animal. He passed the Euphrates at the head of the Turkish cavalry, and entered Csesarea, the metropolis of Cappadocia, to which he had been attracted by the fame and wealth of the temple of St. Basil. The solid structure resisted the destroyer: but he carried away the doors of the shrine incrusted with gold and pearls, and profaned the relics of the tutelar saint, whose mortal frailties were now covered by the venerable rust of antiquity. The final conquest of Armenia and Georgia was achieved by Alp Arslan. In Armenia, the title of a kingdom, and the spirit of a nation, were annihilated :* the artificial fortifications were yielded by the mercenaries of Constantinople; by strangers without faith, veterans without pay or arms, and recruits without experience or discipline. The loss of this important
26 For these wars of the Turks and Romans, see in general the Byzantine histories of Zonaras and Cedrenus, Scylitzes the confinuator of Cedrenus, and Nicephorus Bryennius Caesar. The two first of these were monks, the two latter statesmen; yet such were the Greeks, that the difference of style and character is scarcely discernible. For the Orientals, I draw as usuul on the wealth of D'Herbeloi (see titles of the first Seljukides) and the accuracy of De Guignes < Hist, des Huns, torn. iii. 1. x.)
E^ffJtri) yap iv loipicoif Adyoj, <ds rir) rrcrrpoiuivnv KaraaTputpfjvai r' lovpKblv yitioi ino rrjs roiflurrK Swdjlttitf, hiroiav 0 vJLaxt&W) AXts<ii'<5otJ?, I\ii»
tarcarpitpiTo Hipaaf. Cedrenus, torn, ii. p. 791. The credulity of the rnlgar is always probable; and the Turks had learned from the 4 rabt the history or legend of Escander Dulcarnein, (D'Heilxdot, p *\k frontier was the news of a day , and the Catho.ics wer* neither surprised nor displeased, that a people so deeply infected with the Nestorian and Eutychian errors had been delivered by Christ and his mother into the hands of th<? inndels." The woods and valleys of Mount Caucasus wen more strenuously defended by the native Georgians " or Ibe rians; but the Turkish sultan and his son Malek were indefatigable in this holy war: their captives were compelled to promise a spiritual, as well as temporal, obedience; and, instead of their collars and bracelets, an iron horseshoe, a badge of ignominy, was imposed on the infidels who still adhered to the worship of their fathers. The change, however, was not sincere or universal; and, through ages of servitude, the Georgians have maintained the succession of their princes and bishops. But a race of men, whom nature has cast in her most perfect mould, is degraded by poverty, ignorance, and vice; their profession, and still more their practice, of Christianity is an empty name; and if they have emerged from heresy, it is only because they are too illiterate to renumber a metaphysical creed."
The false or genuine magnanimity of Mahmud the Gaznevide was not imitated by Alp Arslan; and he attacked without scruple the Greek empress Eudocia and her children. His alarming progress compelled her to give herself and her sceptre to the hand of a soldier; and Romanus Diogenes was
M Oi Tiji' 'I/3ripiai> xal Mf<roirorityi<rtj<, <t i! r»|* itapaxeifiivTiv nUovcrtt 'Aufm/iav col of Tt)v xovSa'iicilv row ruoropioti Kai Tow 'Ai(S<pa\<ov flpij
oKtvnvatv a'lpetriv, (Scylitzes, ad calcem Cedreni, torn. ii. p. 834, whoso ambiguous construction shall not tempt me to suspect that he confounded the Nestorian and Monophysite heresies,) He familiarly talks of the p3wc, %iKot, "Wo 0£"''- qualities, as I should apprehend. very foreign to the perfect Being; but his bigotry is forced to confess that they were soon afterwards discharged on the orthodox Romans.
28 Had the name of Georgians been known to the Greeks, (Stritter, Memoriae Byzant. torn. iv. Iberiea,) I should derive it from their agriculture, as the Htvdal yiwpyoi of Herodotus, (1. iv. c. 18, p. 289, edit. Wesseling.) But it appears only since the crusades, among the Latins (Jac. a Vitriaco, Hist. Hierosol. c. 79, p. 1095) and Orientals, (D'Herbelot, p. 407,) and was devoutly borrowed from St. George of Cappadocia.
28 Mosheim, Institut. Hist. Eccles. p. 632. See, in Chardin's Trav ris, (torn. i. p. 171—174,) the manners and religion of this handsome lut worthless nation. See the pedigree of their princes from Adam to the present century, in the tables uf M. De Guignes, (ton* i. a 118-438.)