obscure," dominion on the shores of the Indian Ocean :" th« second expelled the Arabian princes of Aleppo and Damascus; and the third, our peculiar care, invaded the Roman provinces of Asia Minor. The generous policy of Malek contributed to their elevation: he allowed the princes of his blood, even those whom he had vanquished in the field, to seek new kingdoms worthy of their ambition; nor was he displeased that they should draw away the more ardent spirits, who might have disturbed the tranquillity of his reign. As the supreme head of his family and nation, the great sultan of Persia commanded the obedience and tribute of his royal brethren: the thrones of Kerman and Nice, of Aleppo and Damascus; the Atabeks, and emirs of Syria and Mesopotamia, erected their standards under the shadow of his sceptre :4* and the hordes of Turkmans overspread the plains of the Western Asia. After the death of Malek, the bands of union and subordination were relaxed and finally dissolved: the indulgence of the house of Seljuk invested their slaves with the inheritance of kingdoms; and, in the Oriental style, a wowd of princes arose from the dust of their feet."

A prince of the royal line, Cutulmish,* the son of Izrail, the son of Seljuk, had fallen in a battle agains* Alp Arslan and the humane victor had dropped a tear over h»s grave. Hi* five sons, strong in arms, ambitious of power, a«d eager for revenge, unsheathed their cimeters against the son of Alp Arslan. The two armies expected the signal when the caliph, forgetful of the majesty which secluded him from

47 So obscure, that the industry of M. De Guignes coul' only copy (torn. i. p. 244, torn. iii. part i. p. 269, Ac.) the history, or rather list, of the Seljukides of Kerman, in Bibliotheque Orientate. They were ex tinguished before the end of the xiith century.

48 Tavernier, perhaps the only traveller who has visited Kerman. describes the capital as a great ruinous village, twenty-five days' jour ney from lspahan^and twenty-seven from Ormus, in the midst of a fertile country, (Voyages en Turquie et en Perse, p. 107, 110.)

49 It appears from Anna Comnena, that the Turks of Asia Minor oleyed the signet and chiauss of the great sultan, (Alexias, I vi. p. 170;) and that the two sons of Soliman were detained in his rourt

]>. 180.)

*° This expression is quoted by Petit de la Croix (Vie de 0>?n{ ran p. 160) from some poet, most probably a Persian.

• Wilken considers Cutulmish not a Turkish name. Ge&ohicta treuz-zuKe, vol. i. p. 9.—M.

vulgar eyes, interposed his venerable mediation. "Instead of shedding the blood of your brethren, your brethren both in descent and faith, unite your forces in a holy war against the Greeks, the enemies of God and his apostle." They listened to his voice; the sultan embraced his rebellious kinsmen; and the eldest, the valiant Soliman, accepted the royal standard, which gave him the free conquest and hereditary command of the provinces of the Roman empire, from Arzeroum to Constantinople, and the unknown regions of the West.*1 Accompanied by his four brothers, he passed the Euphrates; die Turkish camp was soon seated in the neighborhood of Kutaieh in Phrygia; and his flying cavalry laid waste the ■ country as far as the Hellespont and the Black Sea. Since the decline of the empire, the peninsula of Asia Minor had been exposed to the transient, though destructive, inroads of the Persians and Saracens; but the fruits of a lasting conquest were reserved for the Turkish sultan; and his arms were introduced by the Greeks, who aspired to reign on the ruins of their country. Since the captivity of Romanus, six years the feeble son of Eudocia had trembled under the weight of the Imperial crown, till the provinces of the East and West were lost in the same month by a double rebellion: of either chief Nicephorus was the common name; but the surnames of Bryennius and Botoniates distinguish the European and Asiatic candidates. Their reasons, or rather their promises, were weighed in the Divan; and, after some hesitation, Soliman declared himself in favor of Botoniates, opened a free passage to his troops in their march from Antioch to Nice, and joined the banner of the Crescent to that of the Cross. After his ally had ascended the throne of Constantinople, the sultan was hospitably entertained in the suburb cf Ohrysopolis or Scutari; and a body of two thousand Turks was transported into Europe, to whose dexterity and courage the new emperor was indebted for the defeat and captivity of his rival, Bryennius. But the conquest of Europe was dearly purchased by the sacrifice of Asia: Constantinople was deprived of the obedience and revenue of the provinces beyond

M On the conquest of Asia Minor, M. De Guignes has derived no fcwistance from the Turkish or Arabian writers, who produce a naked list of the Seljukides of Roum. The Greeks are unwilling to expose their shame, and we must extort some hints from Seylitzes, (p. 860, 868.) Nicfphorus Bryennius, (p. 88, 91, 92, Ac, 108, 104,) and Anna oounena, (Alexias, p. 91, 92, <fec, 163, Ac.)

the Bosphorus and Hellespont; and the regular progress of the Turks, who fortified the passes of the rivers and mountain.*, left not a hope of their retreat or expulsion. Another candidate implored the aid of the sultan: Melissenus, in his purple robes and red buskins, attended the motions of the Turkish camp; and the desponding cities were tempted by the summons of a Roman prince, who immediately surren dered them into the hands of the Barbarians. These acquisitions were confirmed by a treaty of peace with the emperor Alexius: his fear of Robert compelled him to seek the friend ship of Soliman; and it was not till after the sultan's death that he extended as far as Nicomedia, about sixty miles from Constantinople, the eastern boundary of the Roman world. Trebizond alone, defended on either side by the sea and mountains, preserved at the extremity of the Euxine the an cient character of a Greek colony, and the future destiny of a Christian empire.

Since the first conquests of ne caliphs, the establishment of the Turks in Anatolia or Asia Minor was the most deplorable loss which the church and empire had sustained. By the propagation of the Moslem faith, Soliman deserved the name of Gazi, a holy champion; and his new kingdoms, of the Romans, or of Bourn, was added to the tables of Oriental geography. It is described as extending from the Euphrates to Constantinople, from the Black Sea to the confines of Syria; pregnant with mines of silver and iron, of alum and copper, fruitful in corn and wine, and productive of cattle and excellent horses." The wealth of Lydia, the arts of the Greeks, the splendor of the Augustan age, existed only in books and ruins, which were equally obscure in the eyes of the Scythian conquerors. Yet, in the present decay, Anatolia still contains some wealthy and populous cities; and. under the Byzantine empire, they were far more flourishing in numbers, size, and opulence. By the choice of the sultan, Nice, the metropolis of Bithynia, was preferred for his palace and fortress: the seat of the Seljukian dynasty of Roum was planted one hundred miles from Constantinople; and the divinity of Christ was denied and derided in the same temple in which it had been pronounced by the first general synod

M Such is the description of Roum by Haiton the Armenian, tthoM Tartar history may be found in the collections of Ramusio and Berge run, (see Abulfeda, Geograph. chmat. xvii. p. 301—305.)

cf the Catholics. The unity of God, and the mission of Mahomet, were preached in the moschs; the Arabian learning was taught in the schools; the Cadhis judged according to the law of the Koran; the Turkish manners and language prevailed in the cities; and Turkman camps were scattered over the plains and mountains of Anatolia. On the hard conditions of tribute and servitude, the Greek Christians might enjoy the exercise of their religion; but their most holy churches were profaned; their priests and bishops were insulted ;M they were compelled to suffer the triumph of the Pagans, and the apostasy of their brethren; many thousand children were marked by the knife of circumcison; and many thousand captives were devoted to the service or the pleasures of their masters.*4 After the loss of Asia, Antioch still maintained her primitive allegiance ta> Christ and Caesar; but the solitary province was separated from all Roman aid, and surrounded on all sides by the Mahometan powers. The despair of Philaretus the governor prepared the sacrifice of his religion and loyalty, had not his guilt been prevented by his son, who hastened to the Nicene palace, and offered to deliver this valuable prize into the hands of Soliman. The ambitious sultan mounted on horseback, and in twelve nights (for he reposed in the day) performed a march of six hundred miles. Antioch was oppressed by the speed and secrecy of his enterprise; and the dependent cities, as far as Laodicea and the confines of Aleppo,6* obeyed the example of the metropolis. From Laodicea to the Thracian Bosphorus, or arm of St. George,

"Dicit eos quendam abusione Sodomitica intervertisse episcopum, (Guibert. Abbat. Hist. Hierosol. 1. i. p. 468.) It is odd enough, that wo should find a parallel passage of the same people in the present age. "II n'est point d'horreur que ces Turca n'ayent commits et Bemblables aux soldats effrenes, qui dans le sat d'une ville, nonconteiw de disposer de tout a leur gre pretendent encore aux succes lej moins desirables. Quelque Sipahis^ont port6 leurs attentats sur la personne du vieux rabbi de la synagogue, et celle de l'Archeveque Orec." (Memoires du Baron de Tott. torn. ii. p. 193.)

M The emperor, or abbot describe the scenes of a Turkish camp as if they had been present. Matres correptas in conspectii riliarum maltipliciter repetitis diversorum coitibus vexabantur; (is that til true reading?) cum filise assistentes carmina praecinere saltando coge »*ntur. Mox eadem passio ad filias. <fcc.

M See Antioch, and the death of Soliman, in Anna ComDena, (AW iw, 1. vi. p. 168, 169,) with the notes of Ducange.

the conquests and reign of Soliman extended thirty davs' journey in length, and in breadth about ten or fifteen, between the rocks of Lycia and the Black Sea." The Turkish ignorance of navigati >n protected, for a while, the inglorious safety of tbe emperor; but no sooner had a fleet of two hundred ships been constructed by the hands of the captive Greeks, than Alexius trembled behind the walls of his capital, His plaintive epistles were dispersed over Europe, to excite the compassion of the Latins, and to paint the danger, the weakness, and the riches of the city of Constantine."

But the most interesting conquest of the Seljukian Turks was that of Jerusalem," which soon became the theatre of nations. In their capitulation with Omar, the inhabitants had stipulated the assurance of their religion and property; but the articles were interpreted by a master against whom it was dangerous to dispute; and in the four hundred years of the reign of the caliphs, the political climate of Jerusalem was exposed to the vicissitudes of storm and sunshine.** By the increase of proselytes and population, the Mahometans might excuse the usurpation of three fourths of the city: but a peculiar quarter was resolved for the patriarch with his clergy and people; a tribute of two pieces of gold was the price of protection; and the sepulchre of Christ, with the church of the Resurrection, was still left in the hands of his

68 William of Tyre (1. i. c. 9, 10, p. 635) gives the most authentic and deplorable account of these Turkish conquests.

67 In his epistle to the count of Flanders, Alexius seems to fall too low beneath his character and dignity; yet it is approved by Ducange, (Not. ad Alexiad. p. 335, &c.,) and paraphrased by the Abbot Guibert, a contemporary historian. The Greek text no longer exists; and each translator and scribe might say with Guibert, (p. 475,) verbis vestita meis, a privilege of most indefinite latitude.

68 Our best fund for the history of Jerusalem from Hetaclius to the crusades is contained in two large and original passages of William archbishop of Tyre, (1. i. e. 1—10, 1. xviii. c. 5, 6,) the principal author of the Gesta Dei per Francos. M. De Guignes has composed a very learned Memoire sur le Commerce des Francois dans le Levant avant les Croisades, &c. (Mem. de l'Academie des Inscriptions, torn, xxxvii. p 467—500.)

69 Secundum Dominorum dispositionem plerumque lucida pie rum que nubila recepit intervalla, et aegrotantium more temporum prseseniiun gravabatur aut respirabat qualitate, (1. i. c. 3, p. 630.) The l.Atinity of William of Tyre is by no means contemptil le: but in hi§ acroun of 49) years, from the loss to the recovery of Jerusalem. N >.x ■ eds the true account by 80 years.

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