« ForrigeFortsett »
The magnanimous spirit of Gregory the Seventh had already embraced the design of arming Europe against Asia; the ardor of his zeal and ambition still breathes in his epistles: from either side of the Alps, fifty thousand Catholics had enlisted under the banner of St. Peter ;s and his successor reveals his intention of marching at their head against the impious sectaries of Mahomet. But the glory or reproach of executing, though not in person, this holy enterprise, was reserved for Urban the Second,4 the most faithful of his disciples. He undertook the conquest of the East, whilst the larger portior of Rome was possessed and fortified by his rival Guibert of Ravenna, who contended with Urban for the name and honors of the pontificate. He attempted to unite the powers of the West, at a time when the princes were separated from the church, and the people from their princes, by the excommunication which himself and his predecessors had thundered against the emperor and the king of France. Philip the First, of France, supported with patience the censures which he had provoked by his scandalous life and adulterous marriage. Henry the Fourth, of Germany, asserted the right of investitures, the prerogative of confirming his bishops by the delivery of the ring and crosier. But the emperor's party was crushed in Italy by the arms of the Normans and the Countess Mathilda; and the long quarrel had been recently envenomed by the revolt of his son Conrad and the shame of his wife,6 who, in the synods of Constance and Placentia, confessed the manifold prostitutions to which she had been exposed by a husband regardless of her honor and his own.' So popular was the
* Ultra quinquaginta millia, si me possunt in expeditione pro duce et pontifice habere, armata manu volunt in inimicos Dei insurgf re et ad sepulchrum Domini ipso ducente pervenire, (Gregor. vii. epist. u. 81, in torn. xii. 322, concil.)
4 See the original lives of Urban II. by Pandulphua Planus an«*. Bernardus Guido, in Muratori, Rer. Ital. Script, torn. iii. pars i. p. 852, 353.
6 She is known by the different names of Praxes, Euprascia, EuTrasia, and Adelais; and was the daughter of a Russian prince, and the widow of a margrave of Brandenburgh. (Struv. Corpus Hist. Germanicae, p. 340.)
* Ilenricus odio earn coepit habere: idea incarceravit earn, et cot cessit ut plerique vim ei inferrent; iramo filium hortans ut earn suliagitaret, (Dodechin, Continual Marian. Scot, apud Baron. A. D. 1093, No. 4.) In the synod of Constance, she is described by Bertholdu* rtram inspector: quw se tantas et tarn ireuditas fornicationum spur
cause of Urban, so weighty was his influence, that the council which he summoned at Placentia' was composed of two hundred bishops of Italy, France, Burgundy, Swabi», and Bavaria, Four thousand of the clergy, and thirty thousand of the laity attended this important meeting; and, as the most spacious :athedral would have been inadequate to the multitude, tha nession of seven days was held in a plain adjacent to the city. The ambassadors of the Greek emperor, Alexius Comnenu*, *ere introduced to plead the distress of their sovereign, and die danger of Constantinople, which was divided only by a narrow sea from the victorious Turks, the common enemies of the Christian name. In their suppliant address they flattered the pride of the Latin princes; and, appealing at once to their policy and religion, exhorted them to repel the Barbarians on the confines of Asia, rather than to expect them in the heart of Europe. At the sad tale of the misery and perils of their Eastern brethren, the assembly burst into tears; the most eager champions declared their readiness to march; and the Greek ambassadors were dismissed with the assurance of a speedy and powerful succor. The relief of Constantinople was included in the larger and most distant project of the deliverance of Jerusalem; but the prudent Urban adjourned the final decision to a second synod, which he proposed to celebrate in some city of France in the autumn of the same year. The short delay would propagate the flame of enthusiasm; and his firmest hope was in a nation of soldiers* still
sitias, et a tantis passam fuisse conquesta est, <fec.; and again at Placentia: satis misericorditer suscepit, eo quod ipsam tantas spurcitias non tam commisisse quam invitam pertulisse pro certo cognoverit papa cum sancta synodo. Apud Baron. A. D. 1093, No. 4, 1094, No. 3. A rare subject for the infallible decision of a pope and council. These abominations are repugnant to every principle of human nature, which is not altered by a dispute about rings and crosiers. Yet it should »eem, that the wretched woman was tempted by the priests to rel Ue or subscribe some infamous stories of herself and her husband.
'See the narrative and acts of the synod of Placentia, Concil. torn. xii. p. 821, Ac.
8 Guibert, himself a Frenchman, praises the piety and valor of the French nation, the author anil example of the crusades: Gens nobilis, pnulens. bellicosa, dapsilis et nitida .... Quos enim Britonea, At*g'os, Ligures, si bonis eos moribus v deanius. non illico Francot hotlines appellemus? (p. 478.) He owns, however, that the vivacity »f the French degenerates into petulance among foreigners (p. 18*,) »od rain loquaciousness, (p 502.)
proud of the preeminence of their name, and ambitious t« emulate their hero Charlemagne,* who, in the popular romai.oa of Turpin," had achieved the conquest of the Holy Land. A latent motive of affection or vanity might influence the choice of Urban: he was himself a native of France, a monk of Olugnv, and the first of his countrymen who ascended the throne of St. Peter. The pope had illustrated his family and province; nor is there perhaps a more exquisite gratification than to revisit, in a conspicuous dignity, the humble and laborious scenes of our youth.
It may occasion some surprise that the Roman pontiff should erect, in the heart of France, the tribunal from whence he hurled his anathemas against the king; but our surprise will vanish so soon as we form a just estimate of a king of Franca of the eleventh century.11 Philip the First was the greatgrandson of Hugh Capet, the founder of the present race, who, in the decline of Charlemagne's posterity, added the regal title to his patrimonial estates of Paris and Orleans. In this narrow compass, he was possessed of wealth and jurisdiction; but in the rest of France, Hugh and his first descendants were no more than the feudal lords of about sixty dukes and counts, of independent and hereditary power," who disdained the control of laws and legal assemblies, and whose disregard of their sovereign was revenged by the disobedience of their inferior vassals. At Clermont, in the territories of
• Per viarn quam jamdudum Carolus Magnus mirificus rex Francorum aptari fecit usque C. P., (Gesta Francorum, p. 1. Robert. Monach, Hist. Hieros. 1. i. p. 33, <fec.
10 John Tilpinus, or Turpinus, was archbishop of Rheims, A. D. 773 After the year 1000, this romance was composed in his name, by a monk of the borders of France and Spain; and such was the idea of ecclesiastical merit, that he describes himself as a fighting and drinking priest' Yet the book of lies was pronounced authentic by Pope CalixAia II., (A. D. 1122,) and is respectfully quoted by the abbot Suger, in he great Chronicles of St. Denys, (Fabric Bibliot. Latin Medii JEvi,
edit. Mansi, torn. iv. p. 161.)
11 See Etat de la France, by the Count de Boulainvilliers, torn, i. p. 180—182, and the second volume of the Observations sur l'Histoirc de f'rai ce, by the Abbe de Mably.
11 In the provinces to the south of the Loire, the first Capetiant rere scarcely allowed a feudal supremacy. On all sides, Normandy, Bretagrie, Aquitain, Burgundy, Lorraine, and Flanders, contracted th« name and limits of the proper France See Hadrian Vales, Notitii Balliaium
the count of Auvergne,1* the pope might brave with impunity the resentment of Philip; and the council wnich he convened in that city was not less numerous or respectable than the synod of Placentia.14 Besides his court and council of Roman cardinals, he was supported by thirteen archbishops and two hundred and twenty-five bishops: the number of mitred prelates was computed at four hundred; and the fathers of the church were blessed by the saints and enlightened by the doctors of the age. From the adjacent kingdoms, a martial train of lords and knights of power and renown attended the council,1* in high expectation of its resolves; and such was the ardor of zeal and curiosity, that the city was filled, and many thousands, in the month of November, erected their tents or huts in the open field. A session of eight days produced some useful or edifying canons for the reformation of manners; a severe censure was pronounced against tkj license of private war; the Truce of God l4 was confirmed, a suspension of hostilities during four days of the week; women and priests were placed under the safeguard of the church; and a protection of three years was extended to husbandmen and merchants, the defenceless victims of military rapine. But a law, however venerable be the sanction, cannot suddenly transform the temper of the times; and the benevolent efforts of Urban deserve the less praise, since he labored to appease some domestic quarrels that he might spread the flames of war from the Atlantic to the Euphrates. From the synod of Placentia, the rumor of his great design had gone
11 These counts, a younger branch of the dukes of Aquitaai, were Rt length despoiled of the greatest part of their country by Philip Augustus. The bishops ">f Clermont gradually became priucea of the city. Melanges, tires d'une grand Bibliotheque, torn, xxxvi. p 288, &c
14 See the Acts of the council of Clermont, Concil. torn. xii. p. 829, Ac
11 Confluxerunt ad concilium e multis regionibus, viri potcntes et honorati, innumeri quamvis cingulo laicalis militiae superbi, (Baldric, an eye-witness, p. 86—88. Robert. Monaco, p. 31, 32. Will. Tyr, L 14, 15, p. 639—641. Guibert, p. 478—480. Fulcher. Carnot. p. 882.)
,e The Truce of God (Treva, or Treuga Dei) was first invented in Aquitain, A. h. 1032; blamed by some bishops as an occasion of perjury, and rejected by the Normans as contrary tr then pri/LVjfla (Ducange, Gloss Latin, torn, vi p. 682t—685.)
forth among the nations: the clergy on their return ha<? preached in every diocese the merit and glory of the deliverance jf the Holy Land; and when the pope ascended a lofty scaffold in the market-place of Clermont, his eloquence wa9 addressed to a well-prepared and impatient audience. Hia topics were obvious, his exhortation was vehement, his suesess inevitable. The orator was interrupted by the shout of thousands, who with one voice, and in their rustic idiom, exclaimed aloud, " God wills it, God wills it."" "It is indeed the will of God," replied the pope; "and let this memorable word, the inspiration surely of the Holy Spirit, be forever adopted as your cry of battle, to animate the devotion and courage of the champions of Christ. His cross is the symbol of your salvation; wear it, a red, a bloody cross, as an external mark, on your breasts or shoulders, as a pledge of your sacred and irrevocable engagement." The proposal was joyfully accepted; great numbers, both of the clergy and laity, impressed on their garments the sign of the cross," and solicited the pope to march at their head. This dangerous honor was declined by the more prudent successor of Gregory, who alleged the schism of the church, and the duties of his pastoral office, recommending to the faithful, who were disqualified by sex or profession, by age or infirmity, to aid, with their prayers and alms, the personal service of their robust brethren. The name and powers of his legate he devolved on Adhemar bishop of Puy, the first who had received the cross at his hands. The foremost of the temporal chiefs was Raymond count of Thoulouse, whose ambassadors in the council excused the absence, and pledged the honor, of their
"heus vult, Deus vult 1 was the pure acclamation of the clergj who understood Latin, (Robert. Mon. 1. i. p. 32.) By the illiterate laity, who spoke the Provincial or Limousin idiom, it was' corrupted to JDeus lo volt, or Diex el volt. See Chron. Casinense, 1. iv. c. 11, p. 497, in Muratori, Script. Reruni Ital. torn, iv., and Ducange, (Dissertat xi. p 207, sur Joinville, and Gloss. Latin, torn. ii. p. 69U,) who, in hia preface, produces a very difficult specimen of the dialect of Rovergue, A. D. 1100, very near, both in time and place, to the council of Cler
nut, (p. 15,16.)
18 Most commonly on their shoulders, in gold, or silk, w cloth sewed on ;l>eir garments. In the first crusade, all were red , in the third the French alone preserved that color, while green crosses were adoptid by the Flemings, and white by the English, (Ducange, torn it p HI.) Yet in England, the red ever appears the favorite, and *» if »erc the national, color of our military ensigns and aai.krms.