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assigned among the gardens and palaces on the shores of thai narrow sea. But an incurable jealousy still rankled in the minds of the two nations, who despised each other as slaves and Barbarians. Ignorance is the ground of suspicion, and suspicion was inflamed into daily provocations: prejudice is blind, hunger is deaf; and Alexius is accused of a design to starve or assault the Latins in a dangerous post, on all sides encompassed with the waters." Godfrey sounded his trumpets, burst the net, overspread the plain, and insulted the suburbs; but the gates of Constantinople were strongly fortified; the ramparts were lined with archers; and, after a doubtful conflict, both parties listened to the voice of peace and religion. Tha gifts and promises of the emperor insensibly soothed the fierce spirit of the western strangers; as a Christian warrior, he rekindled their zeal for the prosecution of their holy enterprise, which he engaged to second with his troops and treasures. On the return of spring, Godfrey was persuaded to occupy a pleasant and plentiful camp in Asia; and no sooner had he passed the Bosphorus, than the Greek vessels were suddenly recalled to the opposite shore. The same policy was repeated with the succeeding chiefs, who were swayed by the example, and weakened by the departure, of their foremost companions. By his skill and diligence, Alexius prevented the union of any two of the confederate armies at the same moment under the walls of Constantinople; and before the feast of the Pentecost not a Latin pilgrim was left on the coast of Europe.

The same arms which threatened Europe might deliver Asia, and repel the Turks from the neighboring shores of the Bosphorus and Hellespont. The fair provinces from Nice to Antioch were the recent patrimony of the Roman emperor; and his ancient and perpetual claim still embraced the kingdoms of Syria and Egypt. In his enthusiasm, Alexius indulged, or affected, the ambitious hope of leading his new allies to subvert the thrones of the East; but the calmer dictates of reason and temper dissuaded him from exposing his royal person to the faith of unknown and lawless Barbarians. His prudence, or his pride, was content with extorting from the

11 Between the Black Sea, the Bosphorus, and the River Barbyses, which is deep in summer, and runs fifteen miles through a flat meadow to communication with Europe and Constantinople is by the stem oridge of the Blacherna, which in successive ages was restored bj Justinian and Basil, (Gyllius de Bosphoro Thracio, 1 ii. c. 3. Duoangr V. P. Christiana. 1. v. c.-2, p, 179.)

French princes an oath of homage and fidelity, and a solemt promise, that they would either restore,,or hold, their Asiatic conquests as the humble and loyal vassals of the Roman empire. Their independent spirit was fired at the mention of this foreign and voluntary servitude: they successively yielded to the dexterous application of gifts and flattery; and the first proselytes became the most eloquent and effectual missionaries lx> multiply the companions of their shame. The pride of Hugh of Vermandois was soothed by the honors of his captivity; and in the brother of the French king, the example of submission was prevalent and weighty. In the mind of Godfrey of Bouillon every human consideration was subordinate to the glory of God and the success of the crusade. He had firmly resisted the temptations of Bohemond and Raymond, who urged the attack and conquest of Constantinople. Alexius esteemed his virtues, deservedly named him the champion of the empire, and dignified his homage with the filial name and the rights of adoption.87 The hateful Bohemond was received as a true and ancient ally; and if the emperor reminded him of former hostilities, it was only to praise the valor that he had displayed, and the glory that he had acquired, in the fields of Durazzo and Larissa. The son of Guiscard was lodged and entertained, and served with Imperial pomp: one day, as he passed through the gallery of the palace, a door wavS carelessly left open to expose a pile of gold and silver, of silk and gems, of curious and costly furniture, that was heaped, in seeming disorder, from the floor to the roof of the chamber. "What conquests," exclaimed the ambitious miser, "might not be achieved by the possession of such a treasure!"— "It is your own," replied a Greek attendant, who watched the motions of his soul; and Bohemond, after some hesitation, condescended to accept this magnificent present. The Noi man was flattered by the assurance of an independent principality; and Alexius eluded, rather than denied, his daring demand of the office of great domestic, or general of the East. The two Roberts, the son of the conqueror of England, and the kinsmen of three queens,88 bowed in their turn before the

,T There are two sorts of adoption, the one by arms, the other by ntroducing the sou between the shirt and skin of his father. Ducange (»ur Joinrille, Diss. xxii. p. 270) supposes Godfrey's adoption t? have been of the latter sort

e* After his return, Robert of Flanders became the man of the king ef England, for a pension of four hundred marks. See the first act in Rymer'a Feeder a.

Byzantine throne. A private letter of Stephen of Chartre« attests his admiration of the emperor, the most excellent and liberal of men, who taught hiin to believe that he was a favorite, and promised to educate and establish his youngest son. In his southern province, the count of St. Giles and Thoulouse faintly recognized the supremacy of the king of France, a prince of a foreign nation and language. At the head of a hundred thousand men, he declared that he was the soldier and servant of Christ alone, and that the Greek might be satisfied with an equal treaty of alliance and friendship. His obstinate resistance enhanced the value and the price of his submission; and he shone, says the princess Anne, among the Barbarians, as the sun amidst the stars of heaven. His disgust of the noise and insolence of the French, his suspicions of the designs of Bohemond, the emperor imparted to his faithful Raymond; and that aged statesman might clearly discern, that however false in friendship, he was sincere in his enmity.69 The spirit of chivalry was last subdued in the person of Tancred; and none could deem themselves dishonored by the imitation of that gallant knight. He disdained the gold and flattery of the Greek monarch; assaulted in his presence an insolent patrician; escaped to Asia in the habit of a private soldier; and yielded with a sigh to the authority of Bohemond, and the interest of the Christian cause. The best and most ostensible reason was the impossibility of passing the sea and accomplishing their vow, without the license and the vessels of Alexius; but they cherished a secret hope, that as soon as they trod the continent of Asia, their swords would obliterate their shame, and dissolve the engagement, which on his side might not be very faithfully performed. The ceremony of their homage was grateful to a people who had long since considered pride as the substitute of power. High on his throne, the emperor sat mute and immovable: his majesty was adored by the Latin princes; and they submitted to kiss either his feet or his knees, an indignity which their own writers are ashamed to confess and unable to deny,"/

•* Sensit vetus regnandi, falsos in amore, odia non fingere. Tacit n. 44

T0 The proud historians of the crusades slide and stumble over thia humiliating step. Yet, since the heroes knelt to salute the emperor, as he sat motionless on his throne, it is clear that they must Mve Icsscd rither his feet or knees It is only singular, that Anns

Private or public interest suppressed the murmurs of the dukes and counts; but a French baron (he is supposed to be Robert of Paris71) presumed to ascend the throne, and tc place himself by the side of Alexius. The sage reproof of Baldwin provoked him to exclaim, in his barbarous idiom "Who is this rustic, that keeps his seat, while so many valiant captains are standing round him?" The emperor main tained his silence, dissembled his indignation, and questioned his interpreter concerning the meaning of the words, which he partly suspected from the universal language of gesture and countenance. Before the departure of the pilgrims, he endeavored to learn the name and condition of the audacious baron. "I am a Frenchman," replied Robert, "of the purest and most ancient nobility of my country. All that I know is, that there is a church in my neighborhood," the resort of those who are desirous of approving their valor in single combat. Till an enemy appears, they address their prayers to God and his saints. That church I have frequently visited. But never have I found an antagonist who dared to accept my defiance." Alexius dismissed the challenger with some prudent advice for his conduct in the Turkish warfare; and history repeats with pleasure this lively example of the manners of his age and country

The conquest of Asia was undertaken and achieved by Alexander, with thirty-five thousand Macedonians and Greeks;" and his best hope was in the strength and disci

should not have amply supplied the silence or ambiguity of the Latins. The abasement of their princes would have added a fine chapter to the Ceremoniale Aulas Byzantinae.

71 He called himself <J>payyd<r xaOapos Twv tvyivuv^ (Alexias, 1. x. p. 301.) What a title of noblesse of the xith century, if any one could now prove his inheritance! Anna relates, with visible pleasuie, that the swelling Barbarian, A>irti/d; Trcrv^wp^K, was killed, or wounded, after fighting in the front in the battle of Dorylseum, (1. xi. p. 317.) This circumstance may justify the suspicion of Ducange, (Not. p. 36?,) that he wa* no other than Robert of Paris, of the district most peculiarly style 1 the Duchy or Island of France, {Lisle de France.)

TM With the same penetration, Ducange discovers his church to be that of St. Drausus, or Drosin, of Soissons, quem duello dimicatur> solent invocare: pugiles qui ad memoriam ejus (his tomb) pcrnoctant in/ictos reddit, ut et de Burgundia et, Italia tali necessitate confugiatur •d eum. Joan. Sariberiensis, epist. 139.

T* There is some diversity mi the numbers of his army; but no authority can be cumpared with that of Ftolemy, who states it at fir* thouhand horse and thirty thousand foot, (see Usher's Annalos, n 152.*

pline of his phalanx of infantry. The principal force of the crusaders consisted in their cavalry; and when that force was mustered in the plains of Bithynia, the knights and their martial attendants on horseback amounted to one hundred thousand fighting men, completely armed with the helmet and coat of mail. The value of these soldiers deserved a strict and authentic account; and the flower of European chivahy might furnish, in a first effort, this formidable body of heavy horse. A part of the infantry might be enrolled for the ser vice of scouts, pioneers, and archers; but the promiscuous crowd were lost in their own disorder; and we depend not on the eyes and knowledge, but on the belief and fancy, of a chaplain of Count Baldwin,74 in the estimate of six hundred thousand pilgrims able to bear arms, besides the priests and monks, the women and children of the Latin camp. The reader starts; and before he is recovered from his surprise, I shall add, on the same testimony, that if all who took the cross had accomplished their vow, above six Millions would have migrated from Europe to Asia. Under this oppression of faith, I derive some relief from a more sagacious and thinking writer,76 who, after the same review of the cavalry, accuses the credulity of the priest of Chartres, and even doubts whether the Cisalpine regions (in the geography of a Frenchman) were sufficient to produce and pour forth such incredible multitudes. The coolest scepticism will remember, that of these religious volunteers great numbers never beheld Constantinople and Nice. Of enthusiasm the influence is irregular and transient: many were detained at home by reason or cowardice, by poverty or weakness; and many were repulsed by the obstacles of the way, the more insuperable as they were unforeseen, to these ignorant fanatics. The savage countries of Hungary and Bulgaria were whitened with their bones: their vanguard was cut in pieces by the Turkish sultan; and the loss of the first adventure, by the sword, or climate, or fatigue, has already been stated at three hundred thousand men. Yet the myriads that survived, that marched

M Fulcher. Camotensis, p. 387. He enumerates nineteen nations of different names and languages, (p. 380;) but I do not clearly appre hend his difference between the Franci and Galli, Itali and Apidi Elsewhere (p. 385) he contemptuously brands the deserters.

71 Guibert, p. 556. Yet even his gentle opposition implies an ton mecse multitude. By Urban II., in the fervor of his zeal, it is onlj tt*d at 300,000 pilgrims, (epist. xvi. Concil. torn. xii. p. 731.)

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