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CHAPTER LII.

Ime 1 Vi) Sieges Of Constantinople By The Arabs.- Their Invasicd

Of France, And Defeat By Charles MartelCivll Wars Of Thi

Ommiades And Abbassides. Learning Of The Arabs. Luxury

Of The Caliphs.Naval Enterprises On Crete, Sicily, And Rome

Dl'cay And Division Of The Empire Of The Caliphs.Defeat!

A<jd Victories Of The Greek Emperors

t rAok

The Limits of the Arabian Conquests V73

i 1g -C75. First Siege of Constantinople by the Arabs, 273

877. Peace and Tribute 276

71 fi- -718. Second Siege of Constantinople, 278

Failure and Retreat of thf Saracens 2S2

Invention and Use of the Greek Fire 282

721. Invasion of France by [he Arabs, 285

731. Expedition and Victories of Abderame, 287

732. Defeat of the Saracens by Charles Martel 289

They retreat before the Franks, 29)

746—750. Elevation of the Abbassides 29)

750. Fall of the Ommiades, 294

755. Revolt /("Spain 295

Trip'd Division of the Caliphate 296

750—9fl<... Magnificence of the Caliphs 296

its Consequences on private and public Happiness 299

75-f.—813 Introduction of Learning among the Arabians 300

Their real Progress in the Sciences 302

Want of Erudition, Taste, and Freedom, 306

781—805. Wars of Harun al Rashid against the Romans 308

823. The Arabs subdue the Isle of Crete 31)

827—878. And of Sicily, 312

846. Invasion of Rome by the Saracens, 314

349. Victory and Reign of Leo IV., 31S

852. Foundation of the Leonine City 317

838. The Amorian War between Theophilus and Motassem 317

841.— 870. Disorders of the Turkish Guards 321

SCO—951. Rise und Progress of the Carmathians 322

300. Their Military Exploits 323

929. They pillage Mecca 324

900- -936. Revolt of the Provinces 325

The Independent Dynasties, 328

100—941. The Aglabites, 326

929 —907. The Edrisites 326

813—872. The Taherites, 338

872—902. The Soffarides, 387

874—999 The Sen>anides 39"
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CHAPTER LV.

TH£ BULGARIANS.- -ORIGIN, MIGRATIONS, AND SETTLEMENT OF THI

HUNGARIANS.—THEIR INROADS IN THE EAST AND WE3T - THE MON-

ARCHY OF RUSSIA.— GEOGRAPHY AND TRADE.—WARS OF THE RUS-

SIANS /GAINST THE GREEK EMPIRE.— CONVERSION OF THE BARBA-

RIAN?

..D. PtlH

580. Emigration of the Bulgarians 405

*00 Croats or Sclavonians of Dalmatia, 407

640 -1017. First Kingdom of the Bulgarians 407

894 Emigration of the Turks or Hungarians, 410

Their Fennic Origin, 412

MOO. Tactics and Manners of the Hungarians and Bulgarians, 414

889. Establishment and Inroads of the Hungarians, 416

934. Victory of Henry the Fowler, 418

955. Of Othothe Great 419

Origin of the Russian Monarchy, 42a

The Varangians of Constantinople 423

950. Geography and Trade of Russia, 424

Naval Expeditions of the Russians against Constantinople 427

865. The first 429

904. The second 429

941. The third 429

1043. The fourth 430

Negotiations and Prophecy, 43C

955—973. Reign of Swatoslaus 431

970—973. His Defeat by John Zimisces 432

864. Conversion of Russia, 434

955. Baptism of Olga, 435

988. Of Wolodomir 436

800—1100. Christianity ofthe North 437

CHATTER LVI.

(HI SARACENS, FRANKS, AND GREEKS, IN ITALY. — FIRST ADVENTUPEi

AND SETTLEMENT OF THE NORMANS.—CHARACTER AND CONQUEST OF

ROBERT GUISCARD, DUKE OF APULIA.—DELIVERANCE OF SICILY BY

HIS BROTHER ROGER.—VICTORIES OF ROBERT OVER THE EMPERORS OF

THE EAST AND WEST.—ROGER, KING OF SICILY, INVADES AFRICA AND

GREECE.—THE EMPEROR MANUEL COMNENUS.—WARS OF THE CREEKS

AND NORMANS.—EXTINCTION OF THE NORMANS

MO—1017. Conflict ofthe Saracens, Latins, and Greeks, in Italy, .... 440

l"l. Conquest of Bari 441

890 New Province of the Greeks in Italy, 449

»83. Defeat of Otho III -, 443

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Anecdotes, 444

1016 Origin of the Normans in Italy, 446

1029. Foundation of Aversa, 44S

1038 The Normans serve in Sicily, 456

1040 -1043. Their Conquest of Apulia, 151

Character of the Normans 459

1046 Oppression of Apulia 453

1049 -lO'H. League of the Pope and the two Empires, 15<

1053 Expedition of Pope Leo IX. against the Normans 155

His Defeat and Captivity 155

Origin of the Papal Investitures to the Normans, 456

1020—1085 Birtb and Character of Robert Guiscard 457

1054—1080. His Ambition and Success, 459

1060. Duke of Apulia 460

His Italian Conquests 461

School of Salerno, 462

Trade of Amalphi 463

1060—1090. Conquest of Sicily by Count Roger, 464

'081. Robert invades the Eastern Empire 466

Siege of Durazzo 468

The Army and March of the Emperor Alexius, 470

Battle of Durazzo, 473

1082. Durazzo taken, 474

Return of Robert, and Actions of Bohemond, 475

1081. The Emperor Henry III. invited by the Greeks 476

1081—1084. Besieges Rome, 478

Flies before Robert, 479

1084. Second Expedition of Robert into Greece 479

1085. His Death 481

1101—1154. Reign and Ambition of Roger, great Count of Sicily, 483

1127. Duke of Apulia, 483

1130—1139. First King of Sicily 484

1122—1152. His Conquests in Africa, 485

1146. His Invasion of Greece, 486

His Admiral delivers Louis VII. of France, 487

Insults Constantinople 488

1148,1149. The Emperor Manuel repulses the Normans, 488

1155. He reduces Apulia and Calabria 489

1155—1174. His Design of acquiring Italy and the Western Empire,.. 490

Failure of his Designs 491

*156 Peace with the Normans 49S

1185 Last War of the Greeks and Normans 193

1154-1166. William I. the Bad, King of Sicily 493

1166 -1189. William II. the Good 491

Lamentation of the Historian Falcandus 495

194 Conquest of the kingdom of Sicily by the Emperor Henry VI.,.. 494

1*04. Final Extinction of the Normans 498

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