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Fight righteous wars instead of the iniquitous combats in which you have been engaged. Mentioned at some length by all.' Promise of eternal rewards. Mentioned by all. Promise of temporal rewards. Indefinite in Fulcher, but not in Robert or in Baldric.” Guibert and William of Malmesbury? have no parallel passages, but the same idea of the acquisition of the enemy's country is assumed. The participants are not to let anything hinder them. Fulcher barely mentions this. Robert gives a much fuller statement,' that they are not to be hindered by ties of affection or care for property. Baldric has a passage of the same import.'' " Guibert has no mention of this, but William dwells upon it." Time of departure. Mentioned only by Fulcher.2 It seems probable that this was not mentioned in the exhortation but was fixed later. The time actually set for the departure was August 15, 1096.13 God will be your leader. Mentioned by Fulcher, “ Domino praevio”, as the last point in the pope's exhortation. Robert does not have this, but he may have had it in mind when he gave as the concluding sentence of the pope's second address to the clergy, “He that taketh not his cross and followeth after me is not worthy of me.” Baldric expressed it, “sub Jesu Christo, duce nostro, acies
1 Fulcher, contra infideles ad pugnam ... dignam . . . qui abusive ... contra fideles ... consuescebant distendere," p. 324D. Robert, p. 728F. Baldric, P. 15A-B. Guibert, “ Indebita hactenus bella gessistis . . . Nunc vobis bella proponimus quae in se habent gloriosum martyrii munus," etc., p. 138E. William, especially p. 396, 11. 25, 26, “illam fortudinem, prudentiam illam, quam in civili conflictu habere consuestis, justiori effundentes, proelio."
2 Fulcher, "aeterna praemia nanciscantur," p. 324D; Robert, “immarcescibili gloria sequi coelorum,” 729B; Baldric, " sanguine vestis purpurati, perenne bravium adipiscimini,” p. 15C; Guibert, “gloriosum martyrii munus . . . aeternae laudis titulus," p. 138E. William, perpetuae salutis statio," p. 394, 1. II; cf. p. 396, 1. 22.
3“ Pro honore duplici laborent, qui ad detrimentum corporis et animae se fatigabant," p. 324D-E.
" Eamque vobis subjicite, terra illa . . . quae lacte et melle fluit," etc., P. 728F. This is contrasted with their poverty at home.
5“ Facultates etiam inimicorum vestrae erunt: quoniam et illorum thesauros expoliabitis," p. 15C.
6 But see p. 240, note 17, and corresponding text.
7 When William urges them not to be detained by their patrimony because more ample ones are promised, the context sems to show that eternal rewards are referred to.
$" Ituris autem non differat iter, sed propriis locatis, sumptibusque collectis ... transitem acriter intrent,” p. 324E.
9 P. 728E.
10 “Non vos demulceant illecebrosa blandimenta mulierum nec trarum," p. 15E.
1! P. 378, II. 4-10.
14 P. 324E.
christiana ", etc. Guibert has “ Deo vos praeeunte, Deo pro vobis proeliante "?; and at the end of the exhortation "Christum fore signiferum ... et praecursorem individuum.” William's phrase is, “aderit Deus euntibus.'3
Praise of the Franks. Robert begins his version with a reference to the Franks as the chosen people beloved by God. His statement does not carry very great weight because this is a favorite thought of his. While a natural beginning under ordinary circumstances, it may not have seemed appropriate after the references to the evil conduct of the people in the previous address. This may have caused Fulchers and Baldric to omit it even if it was a part of the pope's speech. Guibert has no mention of it in the speech, but uses similar language in a preceding chapter. William refers to the “ famosa Francorum virtus.'7'
Special sanctity of Jerusalem. Mentioned by Robert, Baldric, and Guiberto at great length. The Holy Sepulchre, in particular, and its profanation are cited. Evil conditions at home. Mentioned by all but Fulcher." The latter may have omitted it because he had already given the pope's first speech, in which the evil conditions were discussed at length.2 Sufferings of the pilgrims. Mentioned by Baldric 13 and at great length by Guibert. "' The task will be easy. Mentioned slightly by Baldric,' and by William.16 Necessity of contending against Antichrist. This is mentioned only by Guibert." His argument is interesting. It may be summarized baldly: The coming of Antichrist is at hand. According to the prophets he will have his dwelling on the Mount of Olives and will destroy the three Christian kings of Egypt, Africa, and Ethiopia. But these countries are now pagan and there are no Christian kings. Therefore, it is necessary, for the fulfilment of the prophecy, for the Christians to conquer these countries so that there may be Christian kings to be destroyed. Possibly this was Guibert's way of stating the temporal rewards mentioned by the others.
9 P. 13
3 P. 398, 1. 17. * In addition to four places in the exhortation where he mentions this. Cf. prologue and Historia, passim.
5 But note p. 324C, “gentem omn tentes Dei fide praeditam, et Christi nomine fulgidam.” 6 Bk. II., ch. 1.
7 P. 396, 11. 28-29. 8 Ch. 2 at the beginning, and p. 728C. 10 Passim. A large portion of his version is devoted to this theme.
11 Robert, quoniam terra haec quam inhabitatis . . . numerositate vestra coangustatos et vi sola alimenta suis cultoribus administrat,” etc., p. 728E. Baldric, p. 14F; Guibert, p. 138E; William, pp. 393, 394 ; this passage may be, in part at least, a reminiscence of the pope's first speech.
12 Cf., however, p. 324D.
13 “ Quantis afflictationibus vos, qui adestis, qui redestis, injuriaverint,” etc., p. 14A.
1. P. 139H to 140C. 15 “ Via brevis est, labor permodicus est," p. 15D. 16 P. 394, 1. 10. Cf. pp. 395, 396 on the ease of defeating the cowardly Turks. 17 P. 138H to p. 139C.
Reference to Spain.' Mentioned by William, but by no one else. Guibert, however, does give in the preceding chapter, as one of the causes of the pope's preaching the crusade, that he had very often heard of the Saracens' attack upon Spain. Cross to be worn. Mentioned by William. Robert mentions this in the second address to the clergy. The others mention it later but not as a part of the pope's speech.
In addition to the subjects already mentioned there is a subtle appeal to the ascetic spirit of the times, in the versions by Baldric, Guibert, and William; and an exhortation to follow the example of the Old Testament heroes, in the versions by Baldric and Guibert. It is probable that both subjects were referred to by Urban, but the vague and divergent references may be merely the work of the reporters. The references are of too slight weight to be used here.
Urban may have mentioned all these subjects, as well as some which have not been reported. Undoubtedly, his exhortation was much longer than any of the brief reports which have been preserved. But, judging from the material in existence, the following conclusions seem justified.
In addition to the points about which there can be no reasonable doubt, rich and poor may have been urged to go. If this was not expressly mentioned, it seems to have been taken for granted by the auditors. The evil conditions at home were probably dwelt upon. The only doubt in this case arises from a possible confusion of the first and second speeches in the various reports. Some mention of this subject would, however, naturally accompany the exhortation to fight just wars in place of unjust. The sufferings of the pilgrims were probably mentioned. There may have been some reference to Spain, as this might have been suggested by the conquests of the Turks. The valor of the Franks may have been praised by the pope. It is a matter of doubt whether Urban used any but commonplace expressions of contempt in describing the Turks or in regard to the easiness of the task. He probably did not refer to the time of departure, to the need of contending against Antichrist, or to the wearing of the cross.
1" Jamque a trecentis annis Hispania et Balearibus insulis subjugatis," p. 395.
2 Bk. II., ch. 1. It was chiefly on these statements by William and Guibert that Riant based his argument that the pope was influenced principally by the danger to Spain. Riant, Alexii Epistola, xxiv.
3 P. 396, 1. 17. * P. 730A.
The outline of the pope's speech, therefore, seems to have been as follows: [Praise of the valor of the Franks] ; necessity of aiding the brethren in the East; appeals for aid from the East; victorious advance of the Turks; [reference to Spain] ; sufferings of the Christians in the East; (sufferings of the pilgrims); desecration of the churches and holy places; [expressions of contempt concerning the Turks] ; special sanctity of Jerusalem; this is God's work; (rich and poor to go); grant of plenary indulgence; fight righteous wars instead of iniquitous combats; (evil conditions at home); promise of eternal and temporal rewards; let nothing hinder you; God will be your leader.
DANA CARLETON MUNRO.
1 Antichrist is mentioned in the letter of Alexius. A priori it seems probable that the pope would have mentioned Antichrist. On the other hand, if such a mention had been made, it seems probable that more than one of the five versions would have preserved it.
2 The subjects concerning which there seems to be no doubt are printed without inclosures; those which the pope probably used are in parentheses; those which he may have used are in brackets; the other subjects are, of course, omitted. The order is determined by a comparison of the different versions. It is only hypothetical, and the purpose of this paper would not be affected by a change in order.
MOLINOS AND THE ITALIAN MYSTICS
The condemnation of Miguel de Molinos, in 1687, marks a profound change in the attitude of the Church towards Mysticism. It is true that long before, in the classic land of mystic reveries-Spain of the sixteenth century, the Inquisition had clearly seen the dangers of the doctrine which taught that the soul could deal directly with God and which despised the intervention of the priest and the outward observances held by the Church to be essential to salvation. Consequently, in spite of the great mystics, canonized and uncanonized—Santa Teresa, Francisco de Osuna, San Juan de la Cruz, San Pedro de Alcántara, and others who escaped condemnation—it waged unrelenting warfare with the crowd of adepts and performed a service in checking the growth of a tendency which threatened to subordinate religion to hypnotism. In this task it was strengthened by the aberrations of the Illuminati, who claimed that when they reached the desired goal of Union with God, their souls were illuminated with divine light and were abandoned to the divine influence, so that they became impeccable, secure that whatever they did was due to the promptings of God. This abandonment, known to the Spaniards as Dejamiento and elsewhere as Quietism, was not likely to lead to evil when practised by Master Eckart, Tauler, Rulman Merswyn, and Henry Suso in the fourteenth century, or by Santa Teresa and St. François de Sales in later times, but, in natures less pure, impeccability was apt to assume the meaning, not that evil was instinctively avoided, but that evil lost its character of sin when wrought under the presumed divine inspiration. The flesh sometimes triumphed over the spirit, even in those who honestly thought themselves to be treading the path of perfection. That spiritual exaltation shared by the two sexes might insensibly become carnal was no new experience, for, in the thirteenth century, the eloquent warning addressed by St. Bonaventura to his brethren shows by the vividness of its details that he must have witnessed more thằn one such fall from grace.? Nor were there lacking impostors who took advantage of these sublimated theories to gratify their brutal instincts with those who were confided to their spiritual guidance, and it was not easy, even 1S. Bonaventurae de Puritate Conscientiae, cap. 14.