also as the Society for the Cultivation of the Vine and Olive; and of the brothers, Generals Charles and Henri Lallemand, with their unauthorized, military Champ d'Asile on the banks of the Trinity in Texas, conveniently near the borders of distracted Mexico.

The material for this clear story of attempted settlements, impossible schemes, and half-formed, impracticable intrigues is drawn from wellknown sources: the American State Papers, the published memoirs and writings of John Quincy Adams, Gallatin, Joseph Bonaparte, and Hyde de Neuville, and the unpublished papers in the 'archives of the Department of State. There is no evidence that the French archives were investigated. On the whole, this brochure fails to convince the reader that these exiles from France by their presence or actions influenced in any significant particular the history, institutions, or diplomatic policy of the United States. At most they were annoyances to Monroe, Rush, and Adams, and a sprinkling of spice in the otherwise tasteless, though wholesome and nourishing, mass of immigrants of the early nineteenth century.

The appendix, about one-sixth of the whole, is devoted by Dr. Reeves to some valuable documents and letters relative to the proposed cession of Texas and the Floridas by Joseph, king of Spain and the Indies, in 1811, but it is not clear why this monograph on the Napoleonic exiles, the first of whom reached the United States late in 1815, should be padded with these earlier papers. It certainly does not need them.


Reverend William Salter, with whose investigations in Iowa history the publications of the Iowa Historical Society have made the public familiar, has written a small volume bearing the explanatory title Iowa: the First Free State in the Louisiana Purchase (Chicago, McClurg, 1905, pp. 289). The period covered is from the earliest discoveries to the admission of the state to the Union. It dwells especially, as indicated in the title, upon the acquisition of the territory by the United States and the exclusion of slavery through the Missouri Compromise. Limited thus by time and motive, it makes no pretensions to being a comprehensive history of the state.

The first chapters travel familiar ground in the discoveries of Marquette, Joliet, and La Salle, the beginnings of the lead industry, the coming of Father Julien Dubuque, and the Spanish occupancy.

Although the transition to American ownership is a special feature of the book, the limitations of space prevent an extended treatment or the introduction of new material. The condensation in places causes the danger of uncertainty in minds unfamiliar with the story. For instance, Federalist influence in the administration of Jefferson might easily be estimated too weighty from these sentences (p. 56): “ Jefferson suggested a constitutional amendment [to validate the purchase of Louisiana], and Madison drew up one. Alexander Hamilton and Gouverneur Morris thought it unnecessary, that the United States had complete power, and the suggestion fell to the ground.” Jefferson's opinion on Hamilton's influence in dropping the proposed amendment would be interesting

Subsequent chapters trace the evolution of statehood through the District of Louisiana, the Territory of Louisiana, the Territory of Missouri, the interregnum from 1821 to 1834, the Territory of Michigan, the Territory of Wisconsin, the Territory of Iowa, and, finally, statehood in 1846. Few portions of the United States have seen more changes of control. The recital is unmarked by any details or descriptions, except a long extract (Pp. 129-136) from a volume, by Miss Eva E. Dye, called The Conquest: the True Story of Lewis and Clark (1902). Descriptions of early Iowa are reprinted from the journal of Lieutenant Albert Lea in the Iowa Historical Records, and from Catlin's works.

In connection with the free-soil of Iowa, a sketch is given (pp. 241244) of the case of Ralph, a fugitive slave, in which the territorial Supreme Court gave a decision in 1839 exactly the opposite of that given in the Dred Scott case nearly twenty years later. He had been sent from Missouri to the Dubuque lead-mines, on a written agreement with his master to work out the price of his freedom. Although he failed to keep the agreement, the court decided that he was a free man because he had come to reside on free soil with the consent of his owner.

The little book seems quite free from errors. " Thirty-six years (p. 268), the period elapsing between the Compromise of 1820 and the admission of the state, should evidently be “twenty-six”. The volume is a very creditable addition to the bibliography of the state of Iowa.


History of Early Steamboat Navigation on the Missouri River: Life and Adventures of Joseph La Barge, Pioneer Navigator and Indian Trader, for Fifty Years Identified with the Commerce of the Missouri Valley. By Hiram Martin Chittenden, Captain Corps of Engineers, U. S. A. [American Explorers Series.] (New York, Francis P. Harper, 1903, two vols., pp. xiv, 248; iii, 249–461.) In these two volumes Captain Chittenden admirably supplements his invaluable study of The American Fur Trade of the Far West (1902) by bringing together material illustrative of the early navigation of the Missouri. Captain La Barge was born in 1815 in St. Louis, and in 1896 he dictated to Captain Chittenden the memoirs of his life, which “ embraced the entire era of active boating business on the river". His experiences, therefore, constitute a thread on which the author has strung a large amount of information with regard to transportation in the days of the fur-trade, Indian relations, the competition of rival firms, the relation of the steamboat to army occupation, and, finally, the downfall of steam navigation in the far West by the competition of the railroad.

It would seem that Captain La Barge in his old age presented a somewhat idealized view of the contact of the Indian and the furtrader before the days of the emigrant (p. 354). The reader of Coues's New Light on the Early History of the Greater Northwest, for instance, will certainly find it hard to reconcile the statement that the “relation of the two races was ideal, and during its continuance the Indian is seen at his best.” However, the Indian at his best is a comparative statement after all.

In general, it may be said that the two volumes furnish an entertaining picture, as well as a body of useful information on the early history of the industrial occupation of the Missouri valley.


History of the Bahama Islands, with a Special Study of the Abolition of Slavery in the Colony. By James Martin Wright. [Special publication from The Bahama Islands by permission of the Geographical Society of Baltimore.] (Baltimore, The Lord Baltimore Press, 1905, Pp. 419-583.) The significant part of this brochure is a monograph upon negro slavery and the process of emancipation in the Bahamas. It is written by a very capable student after thorough study of the archives, which are very full and complete in the premises. The Bahamas in this period of chief interest were a microcosm exhibiting many of the essential features of English colonial policy and its difficulties, on the one hand, and of American problems of slavery and abolition on the other. There were the long wrangles between the imperial government and the colonial assembly, so typical of constitutionally governed colonies; and in particular the conflict of the principles of central control and local self-government which arose conspicuously in the federal government of the United States. Theories, policies, and interests, debates and their outcome in successive new problems, are concretely demonstrated, with many personal and administrative details, Full references to sources are given. The rest of the work is made up of a very brief introductory sketch of the early history, which might have been improved by research in continental American newspaper files, and of a fuller but somewhat disjointed treatment of developments in the later period, extending to near the present day. The style varies widely as different topics are treated.


The Genealogist, a Quarterly Magazine of Genealogical, Antiquarian, Topographical, and Heraldic Research. Edited by H. W. Forsyth Harwood. New Series, Vol. XXI. (London, Bell, 1905, pp. viii, 318, 23, 241-272.) Important features of the twenty-first volume of the new series of the Genealogist are the indexes of the subjects and illustrations contained in the first twenty volumes of the series. Of historical interest is the article by Mr. V. Gibbs on the battle of Boroughbridge and the Boroughbridge Roll in which the attempt is made to give a list of the most important persons concerned in the revolt against Edward II. Transcripts of wills and other documents preserved in French or English archives are included in some articles, notably in that on the families of Lacy, Geneva, Joinville, and La Marche.


A School History of the United States. By HENRY ALEXANDER

WHITE, Ph.D., D.D., formerly Professor of History in Washington and Lee University. (New York: Silver, Burdett, and

. Company. 1904. Pp. xi, 422, 49.) A History of the United States. By WILLIAM C. Doub, Ex-Super

intendent of Schools for Kern County, California. (New York: The Macmillan Company; London: Macmillan and Company. 1905. Pp. xxvii, 631, xxxviii.)

By the publication of these volumes two more texts are added to the rather extensive list intended for grammar-schools. Dr. White informs us, in the preface, that while he “has endeavored to write impartially of all sections ”, he “has taken special pains that due attention should be given to the part played by the people of the South in all periods of American history".

The forty-one chapters are grouped into seven parts or periods, given the usual names: Period of Discovery and Exploration; Period of Colonization, etc. The conventional method of discussing the settlement and early history of each colony has been followed. The story of the saving of John Smith by Pocahontas is related (p. 29) without a doubt expressed as to its authenticity. Emphasis is given to the influence of European affairs in America. The use of the terms King William's War, Queen Anne's War, and King George's War is continued, however, with little to indicate that they were but a part of great struggles carried on in Europe under other names. One of the best chapters is on “Life in the Colonies in 1763." Here are discussed roads, education, occupations, etc. This feature of our text-books is now a necessity; and it is to be regretted that the other “periods” are not strengthened in a similar way.

The determination by a writer to see that full justice is done any section of our country has its limitations. Beginning with the chapter on “ The Thirteen Confederate States", and in the succeeding chapters to the year 1877, Dr. White has placed special emphasis upon the views held by the South on the great questions at issue. Writing of the ratification of the Constitution (p. 184), he says: “The new Confederation was formed by the voluntary union of eleven states, each of which seceded from the Confederation formed in 1781." Giving an account of the “Hayne and Webster Debate”, he writes (p. 240): “Daniel Webster, in a speech that was brilliant in manner and style, contended that Hayne's view of the matter was not correct, and claimed that the Constitution was not a compact. Most persons now believe, however, that Webster himself was incorrect in his view concerning the origin of the

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Constitution.” Again, he writes of the outbreak of war (p. 298): “In 1861 two American confederacies stood face to face upon the field of war.”

The proportion is, in the main, good. It is believed, however, that New England and the Middle States together should be given more than twenty-three pages, if thirty-three pages are assigned to the discussion of the early history of the southern colonies. Too many pages, sixty-eight, are used in the campaigns connected with the Civil War when but one hundred and five pages are regarded as adequate for the history between the years 1789 and 1861. The style is clear and well suited to pupils of the grammar-schools. There is a wealth of good biographies. The text is well supplied with maps and other illustrative material. Good portraits of leading men form a special feature. The author, no doubt, could justify his selection of the portraits of twenty Southern leaders and only ten Northern for illustrating the period between 1861 and 1865; or why in this list Secretary of War James A. Seddon and General Van Dorn should be included and not Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton and General Rosecrans; or why, of the four portraits of noted Americans in the Spanish-American War, three are of men from the south.

Errors in statement are numerous, as: in discussing the Articles of Confederation (p. 171), “A central Congress was established, consisting of seven delegates from each state.” Again (p. 204) : “ James Monroe and Robert Livingston were sent to France, and they made with Napoleon a treaty whereby Louisiana was sold ", etc. In the discussion of the Monroe Doctrine, we read (p. 229): “Russia, Prussia, Austria and France then formed the so-called Holy Alliance, for the purpose of helping Spain to conquer the South American republics that had once been her colonies."

Our history should be written in such a manner that it may be studied by pupils in all sections of the country without creating prejudices. This book does not seem to be written impartially and cannot, although it has many excellent qualities, be recommended for use in our schools.

The leading feature of Mr. Doub's text-book is the “division ... into periods "; "the division of each period into topics"; and the

continuous discussion of each topic". The plan appears at its best in the presentation of the material between the years 1789 and 1861. Chapters and administrations disappear. Two periods are selected: (1) National Growth and European Interference, from 1789 to 1828; and (2) Westward Expansion and Slavery. Five topics are discussed in each period—as under (1): 1. The Period of European Interference; 2. Financial Legislation: the Tariff; 3. Political Parties; 4. Growth of the Nation; and 5. Institutional Life; and under (2): 1. Political Methods and Political Parties; 2. Financial Legislation: the Tariff; 3. Growth of the Nation in Territory and Population; 4. The Slavery Question; and 5. Institutional Life. The author


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