tire paper to be given in an intelligible form without the awkward multiplication of brackets, parentheses, and notes, and without resorting to typographical vagaries which disfigure the page, when erasures of text and insertions are sought to be shown in cold type. Lined type was used in the Writings of Jefferson, Washington, Monroe, and Madison (Putnams), and I did not believe any explanation to be necessary. The selection of the year as a unit was to obviate a great multiplication of indexes. If 1776 require three volumes, there would be six volumes and six indexes, and with 1777, nine, in place of three and four as under the present scheme. A final volume, comprising a combined index to the series, will obviate in part the objection to the method adopted. An account of the papers or manuscripts themselves is reserved for the “ Calendar of the Papers of the Continental Congress ", now in preparation.

I shall welcome criticism and suggestion, as the opportunity presented by the liberal management of the Library of Congress for a final edition is not one to be wasted or impaired by an insistence on personal methods or individual prejudices.




and 2.

The American Historical Association holds its twenty-first annual meeting at Baltimore and Washington on December 26-29. At the first session, held jointly with the American Political Science Association, addresses will be delivered by the presidents of the two associations. Two sessions are devoted to conferences on questions connected with history in elementary schools and in colleges, with the work of historical societies, and with church history, two sessions more are given up to papers on American history, and one to papers dealing mainly with the history of Europe. A full account of the proceedings of the meeting will be given in the April number of the Review.

The second annual meeting of the Pacific Coast Branch of the American Historical Association was held in San Francisco on December i

At the general session, on Friday afternoon, three papers were read: "Legislating through State Constitutions ", by Eugene I. McCormac; “ Origin of the National Land System under the Confederation”, by Payson Jackson Treat; and “Fugitive Slave Legislation in America", by F. G. Franklin. In the evening an informal dinner was held at which the annual address by President Horace Davis was delivered. The Saturday morning session was devoted to the subject of the teaching of history, while that in the afternoon was given over to Pacific coast history, with papers by Professor Schafer on “ The First Great Movement of Americans to the Pacific”; by C. K. Bonestell on Secularization of the Missions of Upper California "; and by Professor C. A. Duniway on “ Slavery in California after 1849”. At the business session the following officers were elected for the ensuing year: President, Horace Davis; vice-president, William D. Fenton; secretary and treasurer, Max Farrand; executive committee, James D. Phelan, H. Morse Stephens, Joseph Schafer, C. A. Duniway.

Samuel Adams Drake died December 5, at Kennebunkport, Maine, aged seventy-two. His historical writings dealt principally with New England subjects, although he published a volume on Virginia and another on the West. His work, although much of it was purposely adapted to younger readers, was scholarly and careful. His tastes were antiquarian, as is shown in the titles of a number of his pamphlets and sketches relating to New England. Among his more important works are Border Wars of New England (1897), based on material collected by his father, Samuel G. Drake, The Making of New England (1886), and a volume of eleven British narratives relating to Bunker Hill. At

AM. HIST. REV., VOL. XI.-30. (455)

the time of his death he was at work on a history of the United States, which his father began, and which he had labored long to complete.

M. Alfred Rambaud, Member of the Institute and professor of modern history at the Sorbonne, died in Paris on November 10 at the age of sixty-two. He was an active participant in public affairs and a leader of public opinion as well as a distinguished historian. In 1870, his thesis on L'Empire Grec au Xe siècle, Constantin Porphyrogénète, marked the revival of Byzantine studies in France. For reasons of public policy he desired that his countrymen should be acquainted with the history of Russia and together with a few others undertook the task of familiarizing them with it. In 1876 he published Chansons Héroiques de la Russie, in 1877, Moscou et Sébastopol, and in 1878, his wellknown Histoire de la Russie. From 1879 to 1880, he was Minister of Public Instruction under Jules Ferry, and a zealous defender of his chief's policy of expansion. In collaboration with others, be brought out in 1886 France Coloniale and in 1885-1888 published his Histoire de la Civilisation Française. In 1890 appeared his Recueil des Instructions données aux Ambassadeurs et Ministres de France en Russie, and in 1893-1901 the admirable Histoire Générale du IVe Siècle à nos jours, which he edited in co-operation with M. E. Lavisse. From 1896 to 1898 he was again Minister of Public Instruction. In 1897 he became a member of the Institute. His last work was Jules Ferry (1903). M. Rambaud excelled in brilliant and exact synthesis and was able to present sound learning in a popular form. He was the author of a few novels and for some years was the editor of the Revue Bleue.

Professor Wilhelm Oncken, of the University of Giessen, who died on August 11, aged sixty-six, is most widely known as the editor of the Allgemeine Geschichte in Einzeldarstellungen, 1879-1893, to which he contributed three monographs on different periods of the modern history of Prussia. His earlier works mostly concerned the ancient history of Greece.

Professor Ernst Berner, archivist of the royal family of Prussia, died on October 12, at the age of fifty-two. His writings include: Die Geschichte des preussischen Staats, 1896; Wilhelm der Grosse, 1897; Aus dem Briefwechsel König Friedrichs I. von Preussen und seiner Familie, 1901; Der Regierungsanfang des Prinzregenten von Preussen und seiner Gemahlin, 1902. Professor Berner's place as editor of the Jahresberichte der Geschichtswissenschaft will be taken by Dr. Georg Schuster.

Sir William Muir, an eminent Arabic scholar and Principal of the University of Edinburgh from 1885 to 1902, died on July 11 at the age of eighty-six. Among his works are the Life of Mahomet and History of Islam to the Hegira; and The Caliphate, its Rise, Decline and Fall. At the time of the Indian Mutiny he was in charge of the Intelligence Department of the government of the Northwest Provinces of India, and in 1902 superintended the publication of the Records of this department.

Captain Montagu Burrows, who died on July 10, at the age of eightyfive, had had a long and active career in the Royal Navy, during which he was engaged in the suppression of the slave-trade on the African coast. Since 1862 he had been Chichele Professor of Modern History at Oxford and had written a considerable number of books, among which were the lives of three admirals, several volumes on the constitutional and political history of England, The Family of Brocas of Beaure paire and Roche Court, and Cinque Ports in the “ Historic Towns " series.

The work of the Bureau of Historical Research (now officially styled Department of Historical Research) of the Carnegie Institution has proceeded during the past quarter mostly along the lines of development already instituted under the wise and skilful management of Professor McLaughlin. Writings on American History, 1903, a bibliographical volume compiled by Messrs. McLaughlin, W. A. Slade and E. D. Lewis, attempting to list all books and articles on that subject which appeared in that year, has been published. Preparations are well under way for similar volumes relating to 1904 and 1905, and it is hoped that ultimately such surveys of the annual historical product may appear within a few months after the close of each year. Messrs. Van Tyne and Leland's Guide to the Archives of the Government in Washington having come to be out of print, a revised edition is being prepared. Mr. McLaughlin's pamphlet Report on the Diplomatic Archives of the Department of State is also to be reissued. Considerable progress has been made in the collection of material for the proposed volumes of Letters written by Delegates to the Continental Congress and Congress of the Confederation to the authorities of their states, which when completed will, it is hoped, furnish valuable records of proceedings in Congress, supplementing the Journals. Another documentary publication which is in preparation is a collection, edited by Miss Frances G. Davenport, of treaties or parts of treaties between European powers, which have a bearing on the history of the United States.

The publications of the Department will naturally fall into two classes, a series of texts, of which two specimens have just been mentioned, and a series of reports, aids and guides, relating to materials; e. g., the three publications first named above. This latter class will be enlarged before long by several reports on the materials for American history in foreign archives. It is likely that the first of these to be issued will be Mr. Luis M. Pérez's report on the archives of Cuba. The materials are nearly all collected for those of Mr. C. M. Andrews on England and Mr. W. R. Shepherd on Spain, but their preparation for the press will naturally take some months. The listing of transcripts now in the United States made from documents in those archives is proceeding under the care of Mr. W. G. Leland. Through the kindness of the archivist of the Dominion of Canada, Dr. A. G. Doughty, arrangements have been made whereby reports on materials for the history of the United States found in the provincial archives of the Maritime Provinces and Quebec will be supplied by Dr. James Hannay and Father P. M. O'Leary respectively.

The Prussian Government is to erect in Berlin a statue to the memory of Mommsen and it is proposed to erect a companion statue of Ranke. The statue of Mommsen will be of marble and will be placed in front of the University, to the right of the main entrance.

Professor Hermann Oncken of the University of Berlin is giving instruction in modern German history at the University of Chicago during the autumn and winter quarters of the present year.

Mr. Wallace Notestein of Yale University has been appointed assistant professor of European history in the University of Kansas.

In the Report of the Eighth International Geographical Congress, held in the United States in 1904 (58 Cong., 2 Sess., Ho. Doc. 460) are a few papers that may properly be noted in these columns: “Rise and Development of the German Colonial Possessions ", by Graf von Pfeil; “ The Cabot Landfall ”, by G. R. F. Prowse; “ Some Early Geographers of the United States ", by Rear-Admiral C. M. Chester; “ Des Chrétiens de Saint Mathieu existant en Afrique au commencement du XIVme Siècle et de l'Identification à l'Ouganda de l'Empire Chrétien de Magdasor ", by Professor Frédéric Romanet du Caillaud; “Fundación de Mexico-Tenochtitlan ", by Professor Alfredo Chavero; and “Geography and History in the United States ", by Professor Albert Perry Brigham.

The fifteenth international congress of Americanists is to be held in Quebec, from September 10 to 15. The last congress was held in Stuttgart. The programme of the Quebec meetings has not yet been announced, but the native races of America, American archaeology, and European discovery in America will be dealt with.

An English version of Putzger's Historischer Schul-Atlas is under preparation at the hands of Professor W. R. Shepherd of Columbia University.

We note the organization in Chicago, last summer, of the SwedishAmerican Historical Society. Its objects, as set forth in the constitution, are to promote the study of the history of the Swedes in America and their descendants; to collect a library and museum illustrating their development in America; to issue publications relating to the history of the Swedish people in Sweden and America; and to encourage the study of Swedish history and literature in American universities. The officers of the society are: president, John A. Enander; vice-president, Gustav A. Andreen; secretary, Anders Schön; treasurer, Aksel G. S. Josephson.

A work by G. B. Brown entitled Care of Ancient Monuments: Account of Legislative and other Measures adopted in European Countries for protecting Ancient Monuments and Objects and Scenes of Natural

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