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Those who are interested in the history of the Philippines will be glad to learn that the Archivo del Bibliófilo Filipino, four volumes of which appeared between 1895 and 1898, is to be continued under its former editor, Señor W. E. Retana. The purpose of the work is to publish such original sources as are now inaccessible outside the archives and libraries of Europe, bibliographies relating to the Philippines, and results of research in Philippine history. The fifth volume, which is now in press, will contain documents dating from the sixteenth to the nineteenth century, political and scientific studies by J. Rizal, and a bibliography. It is published by the house of V. Suárez, Madrid.
During the latter part of the year some five volumes relating to the Philippines have appeared. Our Philippine Policy, by Henry Parker Willis (Holt), is not historical but is a criticism of the insular policy of the government by a bitter opponent. Two of the volumes are mainly descriptive, but with brief historical accounts: Philippine Life in Town and Country, by James A. LeRoy (Putnam's Sons), and The Philippine Islands, by Fred W. Atkinson, first general superintendent of education in the Philippines (Ginn and Company). Both are well illustrated and entertainingly written by men familiar with their subjects. The remaining volumes are wholly historical and are designed for school use. А History of the Philippines, by David P. Barrows, general superintendent of public instruction (American Book Company), is to serve as an introduction to the study of the history of Malaysia; but a comparatively small part of the 320-page book is devoted to American control. Much the same should be said respecting Prescott F. Jernegan's A Short History of the Philippines (Appleton).
Dr. A. G. Doughty's second report as Archivist of the Dominion of Canada will contain a summary of the documents relating to that country in the Depot of Fortifications in Paris; also a very interesting journal of Jean La Roque, written in 1752.
The first publications of the recently organized Champlain Society will be a volume on Seigneurial Tenures and a volume of the Cartwright Papers.
The most recent additions to the “Makers of Canada " series (Toronto, Morang) are Champlain, by N. E. Dionne, and Mackensie, Selkirk and Simpson, by Reverend George Bryce.
Volume XII. of the Nova Scotia Historical Society's Collections is made up of three biographical sketches by James S. Macdonald: "Hon. Edward Cornwallis, Founder of Halifax ”, “ Life and Administration of Governor Charles Lawrence”, and “ Richard Bulkeley”. Each is based on original research and is accompanied by a portrait, that of Cornwallis, taken from the only known and recently discovered picture, at Gibraltar, being especially noteworthy.
The Bureau of American Ethnology has published as Bulletin 28 (58 Cong., 3 Sess., Ho. Doc. 477) a volume on Mexican and Central American Antiquities, Calendar Systems, and History, a collection of twenty-four papers by Eduard Seler, E. Förstemann, Paul Schellhas, Carl Sapper, and E. P. Dieseldorff, translated from the German under the supervision of Charles P. Bowditch.
A German contribution to South American studies is Die Mythen und Legenden der südamerikanischen Urvölker und ihre Beziehungen zu denen Nordamerikas und der alten Welt, by P. Ehrenreich (Berlin, A. Asher u. Co).
Noteworthy articles in periodicals: V. Bellemo, Su due Errori nei Viaggi dei Caboto e sul Cosmografo Salvat[ore] de Pilestrine (Nuovo Archivio Veneto, N. S., Vol. IX., Part I); Martin I. J. Griffin, The Commodores of the Navy of the United Colonies: Hopkins, Jones, Barry (Appleton's Booklovers Magazine, November); C. 0. Paullin, The Administration of the Continental Navy of the American Revolution (Proceedings of the United States Naval Institute, Volume XXXI.); William MacDonald, The Fame of Franklin (Atlantic Monthly, October); Rear-Admiral S. B. Luce, Commodore Biddle's Visit to Japan in 1846 (Proceedings of the United States Naval Institute, September); M. A. De Wolfe Howe, ed., Letters and Diaries of George Bancroft, II. Student Days in Europe, III. Paris from 1847 to 1849 (Scribner's Magazine, October, November); Calvin Dill Wilson, Black Masters: A Side-Light on Slavery (North American Review, November); Frederick Trevor Hill, Lincoln the Lawyer, I. (Century Magazine, December); William Garrott Brown, The Tenth Decade of the United States, V. Andrew Johnson and "My Policy" (Atlantic, December); Frederick E. Snow, Unpublished Letters of Horace Greeley (Independent, October 19); Carl Schurz, Reminiscences of a Long Life, II. (McClure's Magazine, December); Joseph Schafer, Sources of Northwestern History (Library Journal, October); Melvin G. Dodge, California as a Place of Residence for the Scholar (Library Journal, October); Bryan J. Clinch, The Destruction of the California Missions (The American Catholic Quarterly Review, October); W. E. Retana, Vida y Escritos del Dr. José Rizal (Nuestro Tiempo, November); G. 0. Bent, The Dutch Conquest of Acadia (Acadiensis, October); A. McF. Davis, Emergent Treasury-Supply in Massachusetts in Early Days (Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society, X. S., XVII, 1).
American Historical Review
THE MEETING OF THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSO
CIATION AT BALTIMORE
T is the established practice of the American Historical Associa
tion to hold its annual meeting one year in an eastern city, one year in a western city, and the third year in Washington, which, according to the charter, is the official headquarters. Now that East and West have come to be terms of such dubious import, it may be well to explain that the geographical centre of the membership is nearly at Pittsburgh, so that eastern must be taken to mean farther east, western farther west, than that town. Since Baltimore, so near the Capital, would run little chance of being selected as the meeting-place of a year immediately after a Washington meeting, and since many annual meetings have been held in the latter city and none in Baltimore, it was agreed that the meeting of December, 1905, normally a Washington meeting, should be held chiefly in Baltimore, with a supplementary session in Washington. The American Economic Association, the American Political Science Association, instituted two years ago, and the still newer Bibliographical Society of America also held their annual meetings in Baltimore at the same time.
The hospitality for which Baltimore has long been noted was abundantly manifested, both in the social entertainments themselves and in the careful preparations which had been made beforehand for the comfort and convenience of the guests by the local committee of arrangements, and especially by Mr. Theodore Marburg, its chairman, and by Professor John M. Vincent of the Johns Hopkins University, chairman of the committee on programme. There was a reception of the gentlemen of the associations at the house of Mr. Theodore Marburg, and at the same hours a reception of the ladies at the house of the Maryland Society of the Colonial Dames of America; a “smoker” on the next evening, and simultaneously
AM. HIST. REV., VOL. XI -33.
another reception of ladies, by Mrs. William M. Ellicott, at the Arundell Club; and on one afternoon Mrs. Charles J. Bonaparte threw open her very interesting house to the ladies. If it was possible for any of the ladies, members of the Association, to feel regret that its unity should be lessened at these meetings by the provision of so many occasions for their separate entertainment, doubtless they felt compensated by the unusual grace and kindliness with which they were entertained. All the members were entertained at luncheon by the Johns Hopkins University on the first day, by the Bishop of Maryland and Mrs. Paret on the second, and by the Washington members, at the Library of Congress, on the third.
Nearly all the sessions in Baltimore were held at the university, and chiefly in McCoy Hall, an agreeable and commodious place. The evils attendant upon divers meeting-places and city travel were thus minimized. The business session was held in the rooms of the Maryland Historical Society, on Thursday afternoon. Friday morning a special train conveyed the members to Washington by way of Annapolis, where Governor Warfield received them in the historic senate-chamber of the old State House, and where the United States Naval Academy was also visited. The number of registrations was two hundred and seventy-six, a number even greater than at the Chicago meeting, and it may be presumed that in respect to attendance of members the twenty-first annual meeting was the most successful ever held. Its programme was also of high excellence.
The number of formal papers presented was, to advantage, made less than usual. But this advantage was more than neutralized by the indifference with which nearly all the readers of papers regarded that rule of the Association which limits papers to twenty minutes. The length of some was nearer to forty minutes than to twenty-a gross abuse of the notorious patience and amiability of the profession.
Good as several of the papers were, and large as was the general audience which they elicited, it seems probable that the four roundtable conferences awakened a keener interest on the part of the members. These conferences were organized on much the same plan which was so successful last year at Chicago; but it was an improvement that only two were held at the same time. Actual joint sessions with the American Economic Association were not attempted. The first evening (Tuesday, December 26) was devoted to a joint session of the American Historical and the American Political Science Association.
On this occasion, after an address of welcome by President Ira Remsen of the Johns Hopkins University, presidential addresses were delivered by Professor Frank J. Goodnow of Columbia University, president of the American Political Science Association, and by Professor John B. McMaster of the University of Pennsylvania, president of the American Historical Association. Professor Goodnow's subject was “The Growth of Executive Discretion." One of the marked characteristics of the Anglo-American governmental system, he pointed out, has been the subjection of executive discretion to judicial control. The tendency of late years has, however, been toward recognizing greater independence on the part of executive and administrative officers; and this tendency is evidenced and recognized by many decisions of the highest courts. Mr. Goodnow devoted his address mainly to the discussion of the reasons for this departure from principles once deemed fundamental, and for the resulting approach of our law toward that of Continental Europe in this particular. He found the cause in those social and economic changes which have transformed the United States, since our constitutions were first adopted, from a country marked by the conditions of a simple rural life into one characterized by the complex urban and industrial life of the modern day. Under the former circumstances great reliance could safely be placed in individual effort; present conditions demand a great increase of effective social control. Immediate action, necessary to effective social control, requires the increase of executive discretion, at the expense of judicial control. The extension of the sphere of executive discretion is not to be deplored as a departure from the faith of the fathers, but rather to be accepted as evidence that we are conscious of changing social conditions and are striving to bring our law into harmony therewith. But this extension, it was pointed out, requires increased regard to character and efficiency in the choice of administrative officials, that they may occupy a position similar to that which by universal consent has been accorded to those occupied with the administration of justice.
The theme of Professor McMaster's presidential address was “Old Standards of Public Morals." Its text will be found on a later page of the present number of this journal (pp. 515 et seqq.).
Wednesday morning's session was devoted to the reading of papers in American, and largely in Southern, history. Professor St. George L. Sioussat of the University of the South read the first paper, entitled “ Virginia and the English Colonial System, 1730 1735.” Mr. Sioussat laid stress upon the close relation between the history of the colonies and that of Great Britain, and as an illustration of the effect of that relation upon the colonial system