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In the matter of scholarship neither of these manuals deserves any indictment. Any one possessing special knowledge of European history could easily find statements which he would not make in just the way they appear here. But teachers may feel assured that if their pupils get possession of as straight knowledge of a great part of our past as is to be found in either of these volumes, they will have, to say the least, a perfectly safe foundation for further study. The spirit of them, too, is above reproach; the impression they leave is wholesome. The open question about them rather is, Are they too difficult? With all their virtues, are they yet out of the range of the immature folk they are meant to help?
EARLE WILBUR Dow.
The Philippine “Situado" from the Treasury of New Spain
REFERRING to the previous communications to the AMERICAN HisTORICAL REVIEW on the above subject, viz., one by Professor Edward Gaylord Bourne (X. 459-461) and one by me (X. 929-932), I wish now to call attention to the subsequent publication in The Philippine Islands, 1493–1898, XXVII., of the 1637 Memorial of Juan Grau y Monfalcón, and to acquiesce in Professor Bourne's judgment that the data as to the Philippine budget in this document entirely prove the case for the contention that the subsidy from the treasury of Mexico to that of the Philippines was in net cash, and amounted to about a quarter of a million pesos annually. At the time of my previous communication, I had never had a chance to see the Grau y Monfalcon memorial, which Professor Bourne had consulted in Collección de Documentos Inéditos del Archivo de Indias, América y Oceania (Madrid, 1866). Grau y Monfalcon's statements are not only clear enough, but the figures he adduces are conclusive on the particular points which were under discussion in the communications referred to above. The citations from the new and first English version of this memorial which are especially pertinent are to be found on pages 121 and 136 to 141 of volume XXVII. of The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898. This and the preceding two volumes also contain other data corroborative as to the amount of the subsidy, the manner of its calculation and payment, etc.
It is still true, however, that we lack evidence of the payment of this subsidy every year, especially throughout the eighteenth century. The citations from various authorities down to the early part of the nineteenth century, made by Professor Bourne in his communication in question, create very much more than the presumption that the subsidy became a recognized feature and that it acquired a fixed value of 250,000 pesos annually. Doubtless, consultation of the budgets of Mexico and the Philippine Islands, so far as they are available, would be necessary to prove the practice to have been constant up to the earliest years of the nineteenth century. There may have been, and probably were, lapses in the practice, as there were interruptions to the rule of annual communication by the trading galleons between Mexico and the Philippines.
I only ventured in my previous communication to question the definiteness of our knowledge as to the subsidy's being paid in the manner and amount ordinarily accepted by Philippine historians as being established fact. Grau y Monfalcon settles that question, at least for the first half of the seventeenth century. The considerations which I raised as regarding Spanish settlements and attempts at conquest in the Moluccas and the Orient, using the Philippines as the base and the source of equipment and maintenance, are given yet more point by the Grau y Monfalcon memorial. He makes out the annual cost for merely the maintenance of such settlements to be more than the subsidy from Mexico, let alone the cost in money, labor, and timber, of various expensive expeditions then quite recent. Of course, any fair balancing of accounts as between Spain and the Philippines must take these things into account.
NOTES AND NEWS
GENERAL The work of the Department of Historical Research in the Carnegie Institution progresses along the lines described in the last issue of this journal. An addition to the series of "aids and guides” has been projected, to assist in meeting the desires of those students of church history who wish that greater activity might be shown in the United States in the publishing of documentary materials for its religious history. As a necessary preliminary, and with the hope of encouraging such a movement, the Department has undertaken the preparation of a systematic inventory of the unprinted materials for American ecclesiastical and religious history to be found in the archives and libraries of denominations, missionary societies, theological seminaries, and colleges. The Protestant repositories will first be taken up. The work in them has been confided to Professor William H. Allison of Franklin College, formerly fellow in church history in the University of Chicago and instructor in that subject in the Pacific Theological Seminary at Oakland. The director of the Department sailed for Europe in the latter part of March, chiefly to inspect establishments of similar nature and objects. He will return early in July. Mr. Waldo G. Leland has at the same time undertaken a briefer tour of investigation in the Southern states. Miss Davenport goes to London in July, chiefly to gather for Professor Andrews additional material toward the completion of his Guide to the Materials for American History in the London Archives.
General Bartolomé Mitre, former president of the Argentine Republic, and author of several important historical works, died on January 19 at the age of eighty-three. Among his writings were Historia de Belgrano y de la Independencia Argentina, first published in 1857, and a history of the emancipation of South America of which a condensed translation was published in 1893.
Émile Boutmy, the founder and for more than thirty years the director of the École Libre des Sciences Politiques, died on January 25, at the age of seventy-one. His writings were mostly studies in comparative constitutional law and in national psychology. One of his bestknown books is his Développement de la Constitution et de la Société Politique en Angleterre, and his most important recent works are his Essai d'une Psychologie Politique du Peuple Anglais, au XIXe siècle (1901) and Eléments d'une Psychologie Politique du Peuple Americain (1902), in which he treats of national institutions as the expression of national personality. While he sometimes depended too largely upon deduction, his writings are always interesting and suggestive. He was
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an intimate friend of Taine, of whom he wrote in a volume entitled Taine, Scherer, Laboulaye (1901).
Sir Mountstuart Elphinstone Grant Duff, who died on January 12 in his seventy-seventh year, was a man of broad interests and manifold activities. Between the years 1868 and 1886 he served as Under-secretary of State for India, Under-secretary for the Colonies, and Governor of Madras. From 1889 to 1893 he was President of the Royal Geographical Society, and he was President of the Royal Historical Society from 1892 to 1899. His writings include lives of Sir Henry Maine and Ernest Renan, political studies, Notes of an Indian Journey (1876), and his voluminous Notes from a Diary (1897–1904), which covers the fifty years from 1851 to 1901, but does not treat much of politics.
The literary remains of the late Professor York Powell, together with selected letters and a memoir, are to be published by the Clarendon Press under the editorship of Professor Oliver Elton, who has made an appeal for the loan of letters and for biographical material.
An account of the life and character of Ranke, with special reference to his visit to England, has been written by his son General F. von Ranke for the Temple Bar for March.
On December 15 the history tutors of Balliol College gave a dinner in honor of Mr. R. L. Poole and of the completion of the twentieth year of his connection with the English Historical Review, which he helped to found and of which he is now the editor. Nearly one hundred and fifty of the contributors to the Review were present. Addresses were made by Mr. James Bryce, Professors C. H. Firth, H. F. Pelham, and others. A general index and index of the articles, notes, documents, and selected reviews of books contained in the first twenty volumes of the Review has been published by Longmans (pp. 59).
Professor Hermann Oncken, who has been teaching modern German history at the University of Chicago during the first two quarters of the present academic year, has been appointed professor of modern history in the university of Giessen.
Mr. H. E. Egerton, M.A., the author of A Short History of British Colonial Policy, has been appointed to the Beit Professorship of Colonial History at Oxford.
Mr. J. G. de R. Hamilton has been elected assistant professor of history in the University of North Carolina.
Professor C. Oman's Inaugural Lecture on the Study of History has been published by Frowde (pp. 32).
The house of Weidmann of Berlin has recently issued the second volume of the collected writings of Theodore Mommsen, which contains his essays on the Roman jurists and the Roman law-books. The same house has published a bibliography of Professor Mommsen's writings, compiled by K. Zangemeister and E. Jacobs and entitled Theodor