President Johnson's First Annual Message

PROFESSOR DUNNING's admirable article on the authorship of President Johnson's messages leaves one point undetermined: he shows conclusively that Johnson did not write the message of December 4, 1865. but he does not investigate the sources of the ideas therein contained. The quest is indeed of minor importance, because it is made plain that Bancroft was chosen to draft it precisely because his views largely coincided with those of the President. While, however, of little significance, it is not without interest. The mes

essage falls into two parts. (The edition by Richardson was used.) Paragraphs twenty-three to thirty-seven inclusive summarize the work of the departments and were doubtless contributed by the heads of the respective departments. The remaining paragraphs were written by Bancroft and form the important part of the message. The first is conventionally introductory and is not at all in the Johnsonian vein. The next, a full page, is a discussion of the constitutionality of secession, following exactly, in sequence of argument, a much longer discussion in Johnson's most famous speech, that of December 18 and 19, 1860 (Speeches of Andrew Johnson, President of the United States, edited by Frank Moore, Boston, 1865, pp. 112-120). Some of the illustrations are taken, however, from other places; the quotation from Jefferson was perhaps suggested by a later portion of the same speech (ibid., 163), while the reference to Jefferson as an asserter of the integrity of the Union was constantly in Johnson's mouth during the war (e. g., ibid., 294). The third does not seem to be based on any particular passage, though it is thoroughly Johnsonian. The fourth is roughly paralleled in the speech already referred to (ibid., 106), which also contains the quotation from Jackson's Nullification Proclamation, summarized by the fifth paragraph (ibid., III). The sixth and the first part of the seventh are purely conventional; the last two-thirds of the seventh was evidently modelled on an address of the President to an Indiana delegation in April, 1865 (ibid., 481-484). Paragraphs eight to eleven inclusive summarize the presidential plan of reconstruction, as it was known and discussed in every paper in the country. Paragraph twelve follows closely a passage in the previously cited speech of 1860 (ibid., 100). Paragraph thirteen is strongly reminiscent of an interview with George L. Stearns, whose account, dated October 3, 1865, was signed and approved by the President (John Savage, The Life and Public Services of Andrew Johnson, New York, 1866, appendix, p. 102). Para

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graphs fourteen to sixteen are largely explanatory of the most recent actions of the administration, and therefore one would not expect to find for them a literary source. Still the sixteenth resembles an address to a delegation of Loyal Southerners in April, 1865 (Moore, Speeches, 480).

The burden of the message up to this point is constitutional. Paragraph seventeen takes up the negro problem. The last part of this and the next paragraph are based on the interview with Mr. Stearns (Savage, Life of Johnson, app., 102). Paragraph nineteen is based on the President's admirable, though far from cordial speech of October 10, 1865, to the soldiers of the First Regiment of Colored Volunteers from the District of Columbia (ibid., app., 90-95). Paragraph twenty follows first the same speech; the middle section seems to be from the President's reply to a delegation from Pennsylvania on April 27, 1865 (Life, Speeches and Services of Andrew Johnson, Philadelphia, T. B. Peterson and Brothers, 1865, pp. 160-161); for the last part I find no parallel. Paragraphs twenty-one and twenty-two discuss monopolies. The twenty-first paragraph is a section of the address last mentioned; for twenty-two I find no parallel, though it is peculiarly Johnsonian.

Paragraphs thirty-eight to forty-two are of the nature of a conclusion. Of these, the last part of forty recalls an address of Johnson while Vice-president, at Washington, April 3, 1865 (Moore, Speeches, xliv); forty-two reminds one of the concluding portion of his interview with the South Carolina Delegation, October 13, 1865 (Savage, Life, app., 100).

Johnson was not without pride in his speeches; he constantly referred those who wished to know what his policy would be to his record. Doubtless he gave Bancroft the same general direction, and the latter went to work with his trained historical skill to extract the grain from the chaff. It is not necessary, however, to suppose that the historian had directly before him the more recent speeches of the President, though they were all, in some form or other, in print. It is equally possible that the President discussed these matters with him independently, and possibly others for which no direct parallel has been found. It is, at any rate, evident that the attempt was made to have the message voice Johnson's ideas. One cannot, however, read the parallel passages without realizing that the impression created by the message was due to the marshalling of these ideas by Bancroft and the general spirit of moderation which he was able to infuse in the whole.




Mr. Woodbury Lowery, the author of The Spanish Settlements within the Present Limits of the United States, died in Sicily on April II at the age of fifty-three. Until 1897 he practised patent law, publishing several law-books. The later years of his life were devoted to historical research in the archives and libraries of Mexico, Seville, London, and Rome. The first volume of his work entitled The Spanish Settlements was published in 1901, and the second, embracing the history of Florida from 1562 to 1574, in 1905. He had made notes for several more volumes. It is understood that he has provided for the continuance of the work, and that he has given his collection of maps and historical notes to the Library of Congress. His death means a distinct loss to historical scholarship, for his work combined in a rare degree accuracy of statement with charm of literary style.

Señor Carlos Calvo, the Argentine publicist and historian and one of the greatest authorities on international law, died in May at the age of eighty-two. He had represented his country at many European capitals, and at the time of his death was its representative at Paris. His best-known works are his Derecho Internacional Teórico y Prático de Europa y América and his Recueil Complet des Traités, Conventions, etc., de tous les Etats de l'Amérique Latine depuis l'Année 1493 jusqu'à Nos Jours (1862-1869).

Dr. Wilhelm von Heyd, director of the royal library in Stuttgart, died in February at the age of eighty-two. He is most widely known as the author of the Geschichte des Levante handels im Mittelalter (Stuttgart, 1879, 2 vols.), which was published in augmented form in a French edition in 1885-1886. Among his other writings are Beiträge zur Geschichte des deutschen Handels (1890); and Bibliographie der württembergischen Geschichte, 2 vols. (1895-1896).

Dr. A. H. J. Greenidge, Fellow of St. John's College, Oxford, and author of several valuable works on Roman and Greek history, died on March in at the age of forty. In 1904 appeared the first volume of what promised to be his most important work: A History of Rome during the Later Republic and Early Principate.

Brother Marcellino da Civezza, the author of several historical works chiefly relating to the sources of Franciscan history, died in April at an advanced age. In collaboration with T. Domenichelli he published La Leggenda di San Francesco scritta de Tre Suoi Compagni (Legenda Trium Sociorum) publicata per la Prima Volta nella Vera sua Integrita

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(1899). The first edition of his three-volume work on Il Romano Pontificato nella Storia d'Italia was published in 1886–1888 (Firenze, Ricci). His most extensive work was the Storia Universale delle Missioni Francescane, vols. I.-XI.; published in Rome, later in Florence, 18571895. Brother Marcellino da Civezza was a member of the Commissione Cardinalizia per gli Studi Storici in Rome.

Mr. Richard E. Helbig, in charge of the German-American Collection in the New York Public Library, is endeavoring to collect everything written by or about Carl Schurz.

A Leopold von Ranke Verein has been organized for the purpose of establishing a Ranke Museum in the house in Wiehe where he was born. Dr. Boetticher is chairman of the committee of arrangements.

Professor Andrew C. McLaughlin has resigned the professorship of American History at the University of Michigan, and is to be head of the Department of History at the University of Chicago. Assistant Professor C. H. Van Tyne succeeds Professor McLaughlin, and Professor Frederic L. Paxson, of the University of Colorado, has accepted the position of Assistant Professor of American History at Ann Arbor.

Dr. W. L. Westermann of the University of Missouri has been called to the University of Minnesota as Assistant Professor of History. He will make ancient history his special field.

Professor John Spencer Bassett of Trinity College, Durham, N. C., has accepted an appointment to a professorship of history in Smith College, Northampton, Massachusetts.

The fourth International Congress of Historical Sciences, which was to have met next autumn, has been postponed till the summer of 1908, when it will convene in Berlin. The committee of arrangements .consists of Dr. R. Koser, director-in-chief of the Prussian archives, and Professor Eduard Meyer and Professor Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, both of Berlin. The sections of legal and economic history will be organized by Professors Otto Gierke and Schmoller respectively.

More extended notice will be given in a later number to Lo Científico en la Historia, by Julián Ribera (Madrid, P. Apalategui, 1906).

Father Ehrle, prefect of the Vatican Library, will bring out within a few months a bibliography of publications of documents from the Vatican archives, extending to the end of 1900. A second part, extending through 1905, will soon follow. Quinquennial supplements are intended.

A. Capelli's Cronologia e Calendario Perpetuo (Milan, U. Hoepli, pp. xxxiii, 413) is a very useful book of reference published in the series of Manuali Hoepli. This handbook contains the chronological series of Roman consuls; parallel chronological tables of the Christian era to 2000 A. D., the Byzantine, and Spanish eras; Easter tables; ancient Roman calendar; perpetual Julian and Gregorian calendar; glossary of the principal feast-days; list of saints; the hegira; eras of the French Republic: chronological tables of the principal European sovereigns, under geographical alphabetical arrangement, etc.

Mr. Murray has issued a new edition of Sir Henry Maine's Ancient Law, with introduction and notes by Sir Frederick Pollock. For the convenience of those who possess earlier editions, Sir Frederick Pollock's notes and introduction are also published separately with an index to both editions.

In his work on Les Sanctions de l'Arbitrage International (Paris, Pedone, pp. 432) M. Jacques Dumas reviews the history of the sanctions-material, civil, penal, and political-as applied from the time of the Amphictyonic Council to the present day.

Houghton, Mifflin, and Company propose to publish in the autumn Harvard Economic Studies, which will be under the general editorial supervision of Professor T. N. Carver. One of the early volumes will be Dr. W. H. Price's "The English Patents of Monopoly ".

A collection of the chief sources relating to the fundamental institutions of the canon law has been compiled by Professor A. Galante in a volume entitled Fontes Juris Canonici Selecti (Innsbruck, Wagner, 1906, pp. xvi, 677), which will be of much interest to historians as well as to jurists. Nearly half of the book is included in the first two sections, which treat of the ecclesia antiquissima and the potestas ecclesiastica et imperium civile. The remaining sections deal with ordination, the hierarchy of order and of jurisdiction, the pope, cardinals, curia, papal legates, metropolitans, bishops, chapters, vicars, parish priests, orders, and congregations.

M. Charles Diehl has published a volume entitled Figures Byzantines (Paris, Armand Colin, pp. 344) the contents of which are as follows: La Vie d'une Impératrice à Byzance; Athénais, Théodora, Irène; Les Romanesques Aventures de Basile le Macédonien; Les Quatre Mariages de l'Empereur Léon le Sage; Théophano; Zoé la Porphyrogénète; Une Famille de Bourgeoisie à Byzance; Anne Dalassène.

The German Universities and University Study is the title of a work by Professor F. Paulsen of Berlin, translated by Professors F. Thilly and W. W. Elwang and published by Scribners (pp. 451). The author traces the historical development of the German universities from the Middle Ages down to the present time, and discusses the present organization and functions of the German university.

Professor H. E. Egerton, whose appointment to the Beit Professorship at Oxford was noted in the last number of the Review, chose for the subject of his inaugural lecture the Claims of the Study of Colonial History upon the Attention of the University of Oxford (Frowde). He pointed out that colonial history is concerned mainly with constitutional and economic questions, and that it should be taught and learned in a way that will cultivate the historical imagination and make intelligible the different points of view of diverse peoples.

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