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and available means of egress to all persons employed in such coal Inll Iles. (b) In mines sunk after the passage of this Act, the first escapement shaft shall be separated from the main shaft by such extent of natural strata as may be agreed upon by the inspector of the district and the owner of the property, but the distance between the main shaft and the escapement shaft shall not be less than 500 feet nor more than 2,000 feet: Provided, that in mines employing ten (10) men or less the distance between the hoisting shaft and the escapement shaft shall not be less than two hundred and fifty (250) feet. (c) It shall be unlawful to employ underground, at any one time, more men than in the judgment of the inspector are necessary to complete speedily the connections with the escapement shaft or adjacent mine; and said number must not exceed ten men at any one time for any purpose in said mine until such escapement or connection is completed. The time allowed for completing such escapement shaft or making such connections with an adjacent mine, as is required uy the terms of this Act, shall be three months for shafts 200 feet or less in depth, and six months for shafts less than 500 feet or more than 200 feet, and nine months for all other mines, slopes or drifts, or connections with adjacent mines. The time to date in all cases from the hoisting of coal from the hoisting shaft: Provided, that in mines employing ten (10) men or less, the time for completing the escapement shaft shall not be more than six months from the time of hoisting coal. (d) The escapement shaft at every mine opened after the passage of this Act shall be equipped with a substantial stairway, set at an angle not greater than forty-five degrees, which shall be provided with hand rails and with platforms or landings at each turn of the stairway: Provided, that all coal mines more than two hundred (200) feet in depth, opened on or after July 1, 1919, the escapement shaft shall be equipped with both a cage and stairway: Provided, further, that if the coal mine is equipped with a stairway in the main shaft, no stairway shall be required in the escapement shaft. If any escapement shaft, at the time of the passage of this Act, be equipped with a cage for hoisting men, such shaft, cage and all equipment used in connection therewith must conform to the requirements of this Act in reference to the hoisting and lowering of men. Where an escapement way is connected to a compartment in which coal is hoisted in such manner that men using the escapement way are endangered by falling coal or by themselves falling into such hoisting compartment, the State Mine Inspector shall have power to order suitable protection against such dangers. (e) Such escapement shaft or opening or communication with a contiguous mine as aforesaid, shall be constructed in connection with every seam of coal worked in such mine, and all passageways communicating with the escapement shaft or place of exit from the main hauling ways to said place or exit, shall be maintained free of obstruc

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tion at least 5 feet high and 5 feet wide. Such passageways must be so graded and drained that it will be impossible for water to accumulate in any depression or dip of the same in quantities sufficient to obstruct the free and safe passage of men. No passageway to an escapement shaft shall pass through a stable. At all points where the passageway to the escapement shaft or other place of exit is intersected by other roadways or entries, conspicuous signboards shall be placed indicating the direction it is necessary to take in order to reach such place of exit. (f) When operators of adjacent mines have, by agreement, established underground communications between said mines as an escapement outlet for the men employed in both, the intervening doors shall remain unlocked and ready at all times for immediate use. When such communication has once been established between contiguous mines, the operator of either shall not close the same without the consent of the operator of the contiguous mine and of the State inspector for the district: Provided, that when either operator tiesires to abandon mining operations the expense and duty of maintaining such communication shall develop upon the party continuing the operations and using the same. § 14. (a) At every coal mine there shall be provided, supplied and maintained an amount of air which shall not be less than one hundred (100) cubic feet per minute for each person, and not less than five hundred (500) cubic feet per minute for each animal in the mine, measured at the foot of the downcast and of the upcast; except that in gaseous mine there shall be not less than one hundred and fifty (150) cubic feet of air per minute for each person in the mine. The inspector shall have power by order in writing to require these quantities to be increased. (b) The main current of air shall be split or subdivided as to give a separate current of reasonably pure air to every 100 men at work, and the inspector shall have authority to order, in writing, separate currents for smaller groups of men, if, in his judgment, special conditions render it necessary. (c) Doors, curtains or brattices shall be placed at such places as may be designated by the mine manager, subject to the approval of the State inspector, to conduct into the working places an amount of air sufficient to render the working places reasonably free from deleterious air of every kind. (d) Away from the pillar for the mine bottom, cross-cuts between entries shall be made not more than sixty feet apart without permission of the State inspector of the district and then only in case of “faults.” When such consent is given, brattice or other means must be provided within sixty feet of the face to convey the air to the working place until a cross-cut is opened up. When undercut or sheared, the entry, cross-cut and room-neck may be advanced concurrently, but not more than one cutting shall be shot in the room-neck until the cross-cut is finished; and after the entry has advanced fifteen feet beyond the location of the new cross-cut, only

one shot shall be fired in the entry to two in either or both the crosscut and room-neck, at the same shooting time. When not undercut or sheared, the entry and cross-cut may be advanced concurrently, but no room shall be opened in advance of the last open cross-cut, and after the entry has advanced fifteen feet beyond the location of a new cross-cut only one shot shall be fired in the entry to two in the cross-cut at the same shooting time. Not more than three shots shall be exploded at one shooting time ahead of the last open cross-cut. (e) After the taking effect of this Act, the first cross-cut between all rooms off any entry shall not be more than sixty (60) feet from the rib of the entry. Additional cross-cuts shall not be more than sixty (60) feet apart: Provided, however, that if in any mine the conditions are such that in the judgment of the duly accredited representative of the Department of Mines and Minerals, expressed in writing, it is con- . sidered equally safe and more advantageous to leave a blind pillar between not less than every three rooms, the Department of Mines and Minerals shall have power to grant the authority to leave said pillar subject to review by the Department of Mines and Minerals on formal complaint of the representative of either party in interest and after an open hearing. (f) All cross-cuts connecting inlet and outlet air courses, except the last one nearest the face, shall be closed with substantial stoppings to be made as nearly air-tight as possible. In the making of the airtight partitions or stoppings, no loose material or refuse shall be used. Cross-cuts between rooms, except the one nearest the face, shall be closed sufficiently to carry to the working places the amount of air required by law. (g) All possible care and diligence shall be exercised in the examination of working places, especially for the investigation and detection of explosive gases therein, and where found, such gas shall be removed by a special current of air produced by bratticing or from a pipe, before men are permitted to work in such places with other lights than safety lamps. (h) If, in any mine, the conditions are such that in the judgment of the mine manager or the judgment of the State Mine Inspector expressed in writing, it is necessary to use safety lamps only in working said mine, other lights shall not be used therein: Provided, however, that if in the opinion of the miners or operators, an injustice has been done by ordering said mine to use safety lamps only, the miners or operators have a right to appeal to the Department of Mines and Minerals, its decision in the case to be final. (i) The air from the outlet of the stable shall not pass into the intake air current used for ventilating the working parts of the mine. (j) All doors in mines, used in guiding and directing the ventilating currents shall be hung and adjusted so as to close automatically. (k) At all doors through which three or more drivers are hauling coal on any one shift, an attendant shall be employed on said shaft [shift] for the purpose of opening and closing said doors when trips of

cars are passing to and from the workings: Provided, the mine inspector in case of specially dangerous conditions, shall have power to require in writing that an attendant be placed at doors through which less than three drivers shall pass. Places for shelter shall be provided at such doorways to protect the attendants from being injured by the cars while attending to their duties: Provided, that in any or all mines, where doors are constructed in such a manner as to open and close automatically, attendants and places.for shelter shall not be required. (1) If the inspector shall find men working without the amount of air required by law, he shall at once notify the mine manager to increase the amount of air in accordance with the law. Upon failure or refusal of the manager to act promptly, and in all cases where men are endangered by such lack of air, the inspector shall at once order the men affected out of the mine. (m) In case the passageways, roadways or entries of any mine are so dry that the air becomes charged with dust, the operator of such mine must have such roadways regularly and thoroughly sprayed, sprinkled or cleaned. (n) At all mines employing over one hundred (100) men underground and in all mines generating fire damp, the ventilating fan shall be run both day and night; at all mines employing less than one hundred (100) men underground, the fan shall be run at its usual speed for six (6) hours before men go into the mine to work. A recording pressure gauge shall be maintained in connection with each fan at all times: Provided, nothing in this clause shall apply to mines employing ten men or less. (o) In all mines where closed electric lamps are used exclusively, a sufficient number of practical, experienced miners shall be employed by the company, whose duty it shall be to examine the mine for noxious or inflammable gases while men are working therein; and, further provided, that the mine shall be examined by a competent person with a safety gas testing lamp on idle days, holidays and Sundays preceding the time the night shift goes on duty. § 19. (a) No blasting powder, or other explosives, shall be stored in any coal mine, and no workman shall have at any time in the mine more than thirty-five pounds of black powder nor more than twenty-five pounds of permissible explosives, nor more than three pounds of other high explosives: Provided, that nothing in this section shall be construed to prevent the operator of any mine from taking into the mine, when miners are not therein, and in electrically equipped mines, while the current is turned off on roadways through which it is transported, a sufficient quantity of powder for the reasonable requirements of such mine for the next succeeding working day. The delivery of powder into coal mines shall be during the interval after the shot firers have come out of the mine and prior to the entry of the day shift into the mine in the morning; but in the interim before such powder is delivered to the men, it shall be kept in a closed receptacle. Explosives shall not be carried in the same car with tools or other

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(b) Every person who has powder or other explosives in a mine shall keep the same in a wooden box securely locked, with hinged lid, and said box shall be kept as far as practicable from the track; and all powder boxes shall be kept as far as practicable from each other and each in a scheduled place. Black powder and high explosives or caps shall not be kept in the same box. Detonating explosives and detonators shall not be kept in the same box. (c) Whenever a workman is about to open a box or keg containing powder or other explosives, and while handling the same, he shall place and keep his lamp at least five feet distant from said explosive, and in such position that the air current can not convey sparks to it, and no person shall approach nearer than five feet to an open box containing an open keg of powder or other explosive with a lighted lamp, lighted pipe or other thing containing fire. No miner, workman or other person shall open any receptacle containing an explosive except by the means of opening the same provided by the manufacturer thereof, and it shall be unlawful for any person to have in his possession in any mine any receptacle containing explosive which has been opened in violation of this Act. (d) The quantity of powder to be used in the preparation of shots shall not, in any case, exceed five (5) standard chargers full of powder in coal seams five and one-half (51%) feet or over in thickness; and shall not, in any case, exceed four (4) standard chargers full of powder in coal seams under five and one-half (51%) feet in thickness. (e) For the purpose of determining the quantity of powder to be used in the preparation of any given shot, a standard charger is defined and prescribed to be a cylindrical metallic charger not to exceed twelve (12) inches in length and not to exceed one and one-half (11%) inches in diameter. (f) No person shall drill or shoot a dead hole as hereinafter defined. A “dead hole” is a hole where the width of the shot at the point measured at right angles to the line of the hole is so great that the heel is not of sufficient strength to at least balance the resistance at the point. The heel means that part of the shot which lies outside of the powder. In solid shooting, the width of the shot at the point, in seams of coal six (6) feet or less in height, shall not be greater than the height of the coal, and in seams of coal more than six (6) feet in thickness, the width of the shot at the point shall, in no case, be more than six (6) feet. In undercut coal, no hole shall be drilled “on the solid” for any part of its length. (g) In no case shall more than one kind of explosive be used in the same drill hole. (h) The needle used in preparing a blast shall be made of copper, and any metallic tamping-bar or scraper which is used for placing explosives for shots shall be tipped with at least five inches of copper. A scraper shall not be used for tamping. (i) Every blasting hole shall be tamped full from the explosive to the mouth of the hole, and no coal dust or any material that is in

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