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She, offended with me (gen.) and (hating perösa) all the race of men, wandered in the mountains, employed in the exercises of Diana. Whilst we are speaking these [things], we come in the meantime to the market, where the confectioners, fishmongers, butchers, cooks, all glad, run to meet me. Let them therefore either depart or be at rest; or, if they continue in the city, or in the same mind, let them expect those spunishments] which they deserve. O folly (acc.), folly, shall I say, or unparalleled impudence? Do ye dare to make mention of these men? Dost thou not now see, brute, dost thou not now perceive what the complaint of men is (subj.) of thy (impudence frontis)? The Lacedemonians desisted from their long dispute, and, of their own accord, yielded up (the command at sea imperii maritimi) to the Athenians. For (O pro) sacred Jupiter (voc) what greater action was ever performed, not only in this city, but in all lands?

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IDIOMATIC EXERCISES.

oF THE choice AND ELEGANCE of PARTICULAR words*.

Elegance, according to the derivation of the word (eligere), consists in the choice of the most appropriate words and expressions, and in their composition, and clear and perspicuous order. It depends chiefly on the usage of the best Latin writers. When, therefore, the scholar has selected those words, which are appropriate in their meaning to the sense of the subject, the next thing will be, to consider whether they have been used by the best writers of antiquity.

But let it be premised, that no word can be elegant or beautiful in itself in its disjoined state, but merely as far as it strengthens, connects or illustrates, the subject; or at least as far as the Latin word conveys, in its true meaning, the full force of the English expression. It would be absurd, therefore, to use at random the first word which presents itself, without considering whether it is appropriate to the sense. In investigating the true and proper signification of words, it will be necessary to understand each different sense, in which they are used; and if the scholar acquaints himself as much as he can with their etymology and original meaning, he will be enabled to write purer Latin, and to avoid many Graecisms, obsolete and barbarous words, and those which have too great an affinity to the English, introduced into use by several modern and inelegant writers, as, recommendare, to

commend, &c.

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Should the Latin, however, not furnish a word sufficiently elegant, or fully expressive of the English idea, or if the force or dignity of the subject requires it, it may be necessary to vary an expression by means of a short periphrasis, or of a phrase, instead of a simple word. But, in the choice of phrases, care must be taken that they do not convey more meaning than we wish to express.

Nothing, indeed, will be more conducive to the purity and elegance of the Latin language, than a happy contexture of elegant Roman phrases, or forms of speaking, used by the best and purest writers. With these, therefore, the learner should be directed to store his memory, and be taught how to use them in his own composition.

It will also be necessary to observe, that there are many peculiar modes of expression or idioms in the English, which can only be rendered by adopting some Latin phrase, or using such a variation as will best suit the Latin style. For instance—

Send me word by letter:

To use a literal, or, rather, barbarous expression, we should say, mitte mihi verbum: to speak true or elegant Latin, we should say, fac me per literas certiorem.

I am short of money :

Barbarously or literally, brevis sum pecunia; elegantly, deficit me pecunia.

I would be loath to make thee to be beaten: .

I will make them friends :

He made as though he wept :

Such expressions, on the very first view, carry with them the appearance of English idioms. It would be, therefore, absurd, carelessly to say, essem invitus facere te vapulare, &c.; but, with a little care and judgment, and by considering their real meaning, it will be easy to give them a turn which may answer that meaning, and to find out a corresponding Latin expression. Thus we shall say:

I would be loath to make thee be beaten : non lubens committerem ut vapulares, that is, I would not willingly give cause that.....

I will make them friends : redigam eos in gratiam.

He made as though he wept ; simulavit quasi fleret, or se flere.

And so on of phrases in general : thus again,

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I will make good, that is, supply, suppleba. He made much of me, i.e. he treated me well, comiter me tractavit. He makes much of himself, i.e. he indulges himself, sibi or genio indulget. You make game of me, i.e. you laugh at me, ludis me, or budibrio me habes. You can do much with him, tu multan apud eum potes. You know what account I make of him, i. e. esteem him, scis quanti eum faciam. I'll have nothing to do with your friendship, i. e. I renounce ... renuncio tua amicitia. I have my brother to entreat, i. e. my brother remains to be entreated, restat mihi frater adhuc exorandus. Thou mayst for all me, licet tibi per me. Thou mayst be gone for all me, licet abeas per me. To be spoken of, audire. What trade are you off i. e. do you pursue? Quam artem factitas 7 To ask the advice of any one, i. e. to consult, consulere. You are sure to be punished, i. e. a certain punishment awaits you, certa pana te manet. Be ruled by me, i.e. listen to me, ausculta mihi. I am not in fault, i.e. blamable, or, I am free from fault, vaco culpá. Let him lose, be made to go without, his supper, multatur CO2700. To be sick of a disease, fever, want, i. e. to labour under .... laborare morbo, &c. Besides a great number of phrases, which are derived from the particular forms and customs of the Romans, and which a more intimate acquaintance with Latin authors will soon render familiar to the scholar; as, to sell by auction, hasta subjicere; with good or ill luck, bonis aut malis avibus; to marry, ducere uxorem, &c. And so on of phrases in general: this shows at the same time the absolute necessity of attending more to the sense than the words, and of suiting the expressions accordingly. Many English sentences may appear very difficult and intricate, and sometimes, at first sight, scarcely susceptible of being converted into elegant, and, at the same time, appropriate Latin. These sentences the scholar should be directed to read repeatedly till he understands perfectly their sense and meaning. His first business will be, then, to simplify, so as to reduce them to their bare and original idea, divesting them of every superfluous word and idiomatic expression: and he should not begin to write any part of the sentence till he has furnished himself with the Latin corresponding to the chief heads of it; for his first attempt will not always embrace the full scope and purport of its meaning, and it may be necessary to vary his sentence, and give it a new and different turn, by the change of active into passive, or passive into active, &c.; and then it will be easy to give it a fuller dress, and so to connect it by the addition of any suitable and necessary words, as may give to the whole a force equal to that of the English. And as the young Latin writer is apt to follow too closely the literal order of the English, it may be necessary to guard him against this common error, by the following observation, which, though coming more properly under the head of the order and arrangement of words, may be introduced in this place, as being applicable to almost every example that may occur. It is the genius of the Latin language, that the order and position of words are not bound by so strict and immutable laws as in other languages, though certain rules must be followed, and such an arrangement preserved, that the style may not be confused, puerile and inelegant. Seldom, therefore, does the nominative case come first in the sentence; but other cases, unless the sense and perspicuity absolutely require it, are generally placed before it. But, though elegance of style depends very much on this transposition, care must be taken to avoid a confused intermixture of words; that, for instance, what belongs to a clause of a sentence in which the relative qui, qua, quod, occurs, and is dependent upon it, may not be interoixed with the clause which contains the antecedent; as, The man who has once transgressed the bounds of anodesty must be completely and perfectly impudent. It may not be inelegant to say, Qui semel verecundia, fines transierit, eum prorsus o-'rtet esse impudentem. But to say, Qui semel verecundia, eum prorsus oportet esse imp tentem, fines transierit, Would render the sense obscure and unintelligible.

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