If the verb is in a past tense, debeo or possum must be put in the pluperfect; as,

He played instead of studying: Ludebat cam studere debuisset.

1. Instead of pursuing the ...}. and reaping the fruits of his glorious victory at Cannae, Hannibal kept his army the greatest part of the winter at Capua, the dissoluteness and luxuries of which city so enervated the minds and bodies of his soldiers, that Marcellus seems to have said with great propriety (vere dirisse) that Capua had proved a Cannae to Hannibal. 2. The tyrant Dionysius, instead of adorning the mind of the son of Dion with virtue and learning, brought him up in such a manner, that, though he was but a boy (ut quum puer admodum esset), he soon plunged into every species of debauchery and dissoluteness.

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3dly, If it is a thing that ought not to be done, instead of is turned into and not, or rather than ; as, *

You ought to study, instead of playing: Studere deberes, non autem, budere; or, studere deberes, potius quám ludere.

1. A wise governor ought to encourage peaceful arts, instead of endangering the safety . country by useless wars.

2. §. we spend our precious time in ease and idleness, instead of studying the liberal arts, and storing our minds with various kinds of knowledge 2

So far from, is rendered in Latin sometimes by adeo non, ita non, sometimes by tantùm abest ut, followed by ut, or by nom modó non-sed etiam, non solilm non-vertim etiam; as, You are so far from loving me, that you rather hate me: Tantùm abest ut me ames, ut me potius oderis.

Observe that the best authors often use non modó, for non modó non. o


1. He was so far from being superstitious, that he despised those many sacrifices and temples in his own country: so far from being fearful of death (ita non timidus ad mortem), that he was slain in battle in the service of the public.

2. He was so far from being greedy of money, that he made no other use of it, than to free his friends from dangers and inconveniences with it. (An ablative with participle fut. in dus.)

3: You are so far from loving me, that you injure me as much as you can (quantium in te est).

4. So far is my grief from being lessened, that it is increased.

On the point of, is rendered in Latin by in eo ut; it is in agitation to, by id agitur ut; and in the case of, before a noun, is expressed by in with an ablative.

1. As he had been cast in his suit (quoniam causa cecidisset), he was on the point of being ruined.

2. They made a i. from every gate, and were already on the point of being repulsed, when they sounded a retreat, and returned into the town.

3. He had as many votes as the law required, and it was understood that it was in agitation to elect him consul.

4. He assured them (fidem is dedit), that he would do as he had done in the case of his other enemies.

Primus, unus, solus, ultimus, frustrà, &c., are used simply with the verb, instead of primus fuit qui, & also the interrogative quis; as,

Who is there that would not embrace virtue herself? Quis virtutem non amplectitur ipsam 7

1. He was the only one who remained at his post.

2, Sicily was the first of foreign states which courted the friendship of the Roman people.

3. But the Ubians, who were the only nation of all those beyond the Rhine, that had sent ambassadors to Caesar, earnestly entreated him to come over to their assistance (ut sibi auxilium ferret).

4. It is in vain for a man to avoid prodigality, if he turns to the contrary excess.

Without, before a substantive, after a negation, may be expressed by nisi, nisi cum ; as, They fight not without pay : non pugnant nisi stipendiati. 1. #. when he had spoken these §. swore that he would not return into the camp without victory (without being victorious). 2. The queen answered that she had no power to give the daughters of her subjects in marriage, without the consent of their parents.

Or it may be expressed by a verb, a participle, or an adverb; as, Grass grows without bidding, or sowing : injussa virescunt gramina.

1. The death of this man was not without suspicion of poison among the vulgar, who always suspect those to be poisoned whom they love.

o If Pompey, when he was sick, had died in Naples, he would not have been engaged in a war with his father-in-law; he had not taken up arms without preparation (imparatus). - •

3. The best things we do are painful, and the exercise of them grievous, if they are continued without intermission.

4. He finished the business without o: longer. 5. They went off without observing that they were closely watched

(intentius observari). *

Let it be observed that where the latter clause is emphatical, the verb should be used instead of the participle.

6. He walks through the garden, without admiring the sweetness of the lilies and roses, the beautiful order of the walks, and the melodious singing of the birds. (nec tamen.) *.

Without, before a verb, may be expressed by the relative 3. qua, quod, by quin, or by an ablative absolute; as, He es nothing without consulting you : Nihil agit quin te consulat, or te inconsulto.

1. Since my father does nothing great or small without communicating it to me, why should he conceal this from me?

2. # cannot read Tully concerning old age; concerning friendship; his offices; or his Tusculan questions, without almost adoring that divinely-inspired breast. *

3. It is a miserable thing to die before one's time. What time, I pray (quod tandem tempus)? That of nature ? Why, nature, for her part, gave you the use of life, as of so much money (tanquam pecunia), without setting any day of payment.

Observe, that where there is a neuter adjective or pronoun, especially when followed by quo, it is better, for the sake of perspicuity, to use opus, with the nominative; or, as some grammarians have it, opus must become an adjective ; as,

He has need of what he enjoys: Id ei opus est, quo fruitur. It would not be so well to say, opus est eo quo, because they might be taken for the masculine.

1. You have no need of that which I have need of, whilst you are contented with your own condition; and even superfluities are become necessary to me.

2. He has need of that verything which Hannibal and many other generals used in the midst of the greatest dangers, and in every enon', which they call presence of mind o animi consilium).

We say that the verb sum is followed by a genitive or an ablative when it serves to denote a quality, praise and blame, &c.; but it is only when there is an adjective added to the substantive; as, That lady is of a remarkable beauty;

We would not say pulchritudine alone: and it must be observed, that the genitives or ablatives are not always used indiscriminately; we should say, est magno natu.

1. But lest I should entertain too sanguine a hope of success in a pursuit which admits of so much uncertainty (in re dubiá); for indeed what right have I to use so pressing a solicitation to you, who are of the highest o: and most consummate wisdom, I commit of and my fortunes solely to your favor and well known benevoence.

2. When Timoleon had so great an authority and such complete power, that he might have governed them even against their will, but, at the same time, so much possessed the love and affections of the Sicilians, that he might have obtained the kingdom with the unanimous consent of all (nullo recusante regnum obtineret), preferring their love to their fear, he abdicated the sovereign power, and lived a

private man at Syracuse.

Oportet, opus est, necesse est, velim, &c. usually take an infinitive after them, or a subjunctive with the conjunction ut; but it is more elegant to omit this conjunction, as it is likewise to leave it out after the verb caveo.

1. There is a certain intemperate degree of affection towards our friends, which it is necessary we should restrain.

But instead of non opus est, non oportet, quid est opus, it is more elegant simply to say, non est quod, nihil est quod; as, Nihil est quod mihi agas gratias; There is no reason that you should thank me.

1. Concerning the affairs of Britain, I understand from your letters, there is no need to apprehend any danger. 2. I am distracted with my apprehensions concerning the health of our Tullia, concerning which there is no need to write more largely to you. . What occasion is there to build a tragedy on so trifling a subject?


FOR THE PRONOUN qui, qua, quod, AND other RELATIVEs.

After dignus and indignus, especially, qui is used in its different cases for ut ego, ut tu, ut is, ut meus, ut tibi, ut noster, &c. followed by the subjunctive mood : as, you are worthy to be loved; dignus es, qui ameris.

1. Your mother deserves, or is worthy, that you should love her, obey her, and learn of her... (Use the pronoun qui in these different cases, as governed by the different verbs.)

2. You are worthy that I should look to your happiness. (Quorum.)

3. You have been worthy that we should listen to you.

4. ź. parents are worthy that every kind of happiness should befall them.

If, on the contrary, the relative clause refers to the sentiments of the author or writer, or is the actual language of the person of whom the author is speaking, the relative is followed by the indicative mood.

1. He rested the point of controversy not on the order of succession, but on the felicity of his birth. That his brother, indeed, had been born first, but it was while his father was yet in a private station; that he, on the contrary, was the first born, after his father had been advanced to the throne. That his brothers, therefore, who were born before him, might claim as their right the private patrimony, which their father possessed at that time, but not the kingdom ; but that he was the first, whom his father had brought up after he had obtained the kingdom.

When the relative clause expresses the cause of the action, and may be rendered in English by the preposition in, with the participle; or when it it is used for et quod is, et quoniam is, &c., or comes after utpote, ut, quippe, it will be followed by the subjunctive mood: as, omnes—laudare fortunas meas, qui gnatum haberem tali ingenio praeditum ; All praised my fortunes, who had, or, in having, or, because I had, such a son.

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