1. Such is thy hardness of heart, the divine judgments will at last fall upon thy guilty head.

2. Cities also, as well as other things, spring from the lowest beginnings: afterwards such as their own bravery and the gods assist, get themselves great power and a great name.

3. Each person holds an inward and secret conversation with his own heart, and such as it highly concerns him to regulate properly.

And what deserves to be imitated, as being particularly elegant, is the use of qualis, without being preceded by talis; as, You are blessed with such a child, that, if I had such a one, I should greatly rejoice: Felizes puero, qualis simihi esset, magnopere gauderem. Especially as the senate and people of Rome had then such a lead

er, that, had they now his fellow (qualis si nunc esset), the same fate would overtake thee, which them befell them.

Qui, qual, quod, with or without quippé, is very elegantly used for cum, or quëd ego, cum tu, &c., and cujus for cum ejus, cum meus, cum tuus; cui for cum mihi, &c., with the verb that follows in the subjunctive mood; as, What wonder that men die, when we know that they are mortal 7 Quid mirum homines mori, quos sciamus mortales esse 2 Quos used for cum eos. 1. How is it possible that Y. should converse on the subject of literature, since you never paid the least attention to it? 2. And certainly that conduct of mine is entitled to the highest commendation, in that I was unwilling that my fellow citizens should be exposed to a band of armed ruffians. 3. They rated and blamed the Belgae, for having surrendered themselves to the people of Rome, and abandoned the bravery of their progenitors (patriam virtutem projecissent).

The relative qui, qual, quod, is elegantly used after idem, instead of ac or cum ; as,

Nor had he the same master as his father : Nec eodem magistro, quo pater, usus est.

1. The wise man is not confined within the same bounds with the rest of the world. No age, no time, no place, limits his thoughts, but

he penetrates and passes beyond them all. 2. At the same time with the AEdui, the Ambarri also acquaint Caesar, that, their country being depopulated, they cannot easily keep

off the violence of the enemy from their towns. 3. This nation is not so warlike as the neighbouring states; and it

does not make use of the same weapons in war as other nations.

Qui, qua, quod, is also elegantly used for et is, et ego, et tu, &c., for is rero, tu rero, &c., in the beginning of a sentence, or a member of a sentence, when it may be easily referred to what goes before; as,

It happened in my absence, and had I been present:

Me absente accidit, qui si adfuissem ; for et ego, si, or si rero, &c.

1. You have always given me wholesome advice; and if I had always followed it, I should have been happy (er felicissimis fuissem).

2. A friend was then at my house, and he told me that he feared it would not succeed (ut succederet.) (Vereor me fiat expresses what we wish not to happen; rereor ut fiat, what we wish to happen, but are afraid it may not.)

3. I asked him this question; and when he did not answer, I refused to do it.

Qui, quae, quod, may also be used for quia, nam ego, tu, is, &c., when it is clear, from the context, that though the causal conjunction is not inserted, yet it may be easily inferred from the sense ; as,

You are truly reprehensible, for, when you stand in need of the friendship of all, you injure all :

Vere reprehensione dignus es, qui, cum omnium amicitiã indigeas, omnibus moces; for nam cum tu omnium, &c.

1. For certainly it is not my part, since, as you are used to wonder I apply generally so much industry in writing, to commit myself st far as to appear to have been negligent in it, especially as that would be the crime, not only of negligence, but also of ingratitude.

2. It was not the part of that general, since he knew that he was in the midst of enemies, to suffer his soldiers to go out of the camp unarmed, and to straggle about the fields.

Qui, qua, quod, is also often used for cum in a narration.

1. Caesar, knowing that the enemy would immediately abandon their camp, advanced with his forces against them.

2. The man, being of some authority, of a grave demeanour, advanced in years, and a father too, was struck dumb with astonishment at the barefaced proposal of this shameless man (obstupuit hominis improbi dicto).

The relative qui, qua, quod, is often used for a substan

tive, especially after the verbs sum and habeo, when the sense seems to demand such a variation; as,

I have a request to make to you : Est quod te rogem.

1. If thou bring thy gifts to the altar, and there rememberest that thy brother hath aught against thee, (that is, a complaint, that of which he may complain,) leave there thy gift before the altar, and go thy way; first be reconciled to thy brother, and then come and offer thy gift.

2. I have an accusation against thee, that thou hast deserted thy first love.

Qui, qua, quod, may, in some instances, be used for the English particle after ; as,

The fourth year after he had come : Quarto quo venerat Gunzoo.

What have you not heard of Caesar's achievements in Spain : Two armies beaten ? Two generals defeated 2 Two provinces taken 2 These things were done forty days after Caesar was co, ne in view of the enemy.

It must be observed, that though the English very often omits the relative, yet the ellipsis must always be supplied in Latin.

1. The man I saw yesterday told me of your disaster.

2. Go into the village over against you (qui volis e regione est), and bring away all the provisions you can collect, that we may set sail again immediately.


As it is sometimes difficult to determine, when an accusative with the infinitive is to be used, after the English conjunction that, and when it is better to turn that into quéd or wt with a nominative followed by an indicative or subjunctive, it will be proper to attend to these few observations. ,

(It is always used, and never the accusative with the infinitive, after ita, sic, talis, or is for talis, tantus, aded ; after verbs of causing or effecting, persuading, impelling, exhorting, advising, compelling, entreating, beseeching, decreeing, commanding, except jubao ; and after verbs of telling, writing, and ar nouncing, when they carry with them the force of a command ; and also after accidit, fit, contingit.

1. He persuaded me to write.

2. I beseech you to come.

3. I happened to see you.

4. He commanded me to come.

5. Your neighbour is plunged into such profligacy and luxury, that words cannot describe his desperate condition.

But let it be observed, that when momeo denotes information, and not advice, it is always joined with the infinitive ; as, He apprized him by a trusty messenger, that it was in agitation to break down the bridge. In the same manner persuadeo, though generally followed by ut, when it signifies to convince, is always followed by an infinitive ; as, - - I wish you thoroughly to convince yourself, that no one is dearer to me. Observe also, that the articles of every agreement, or condition of a bargain, are expressed by ut. After verbs denoting a doubt or opinion, the Latins elegantly use fore or futurum esse, followed by ut or qui, with ‘the subjunctive, instead of the future of the infinitive; as, I doubt not that there will be many who...... Non dubito fore plerosque, qui.....

1. I hope that he will return into your favour. 2. I do not doubt that many will think this mode of writing trifling

and insignificant, and altogether unworthy of the characters of those great personages.

I never thought that a power, which seemed so firmly established, would so soon fall to the ground (tam cit) in ruinam praecipitaretur)

This form seems to have been originally made use of in verbs which wanted a supine, and consequently a future of the infinitive, and to have been afterwards adopted more universally on account of the elegance of the variation.

After the verbs to will, to wish, to desire, to suffer, and after acquum est, oportet, necesse est, sequitur, either ut or the accusative with the infinitive may be used indifferently.

1. I desired that my father should write.

2. A man must die.

3. It is right this should be done.

4. Hence it follows, that no man can make a great progress in literature without genius.

5. He wished him to assemble his forces, and to march against the enemy.

Actives should be changed into passives, or quod and ut should, if possible, be used where two accusatives with an infinitive might create an ambiguity, which of the two was the case of the infinitive; as, patrem te amare dicunt. Here it is doubtful, whether you love the father, or the father you. We should therefore say, either patrem a te amari, or a patre te amari.

Quðd may be used when it implies the cause or reason of what goes before, when it might easily be changed into quia; and after verbs of certain affections, as of rejoicing, grieving, &c., quod may be safely used, as well as the accusative with the infinitive; as,

I am glad that you are returned safe.

Quðd redieris incolumis, or te rediisse incolumem gaudeo.

1. After the troubles of mind, and the pains you have endured, I cannot but rejoice that you are so well. (Quod, here implying the cause or reason that I rejoice, may be equally used, or the accusative with the infinitive.) 2. I have received letters from home, and am overwhelmed with the deepest sorrow, that my father is so ill (quod in morbo sit pater).

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