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2. The poor are sometimes so destitute of necessaries, that they have not even enough to clothe themselves.
3. Hence it follows, that if one body is not driven by another, they cannot each touch one another.
The parts of a compounded word may be elegantly divided by some other word coming between the parts; as, rem veró publicam amisimus.
1: You will do me a very great favour, if you will give me an opportunity of showing the high regard I entertain for you; as I wish, by
every means in my power, to satisfy our love and friendship. 2. Since you postpone all things to silver (argento post omnia ponis).
Nullus and nunquam are elegantly divided, principally when coming with the conjunctions et, nec or neque; as,
Any evil can never happen to a good man : Nec enim unquam bono quidquam mali evenit.
There is nothing which I desire more than to speak to you; for I have no leisure to write to you, and no messenger ever comes near Ine.
When two words are joined together by a conjunction, some other word, having a reference to them, will be elegantly placed between them; as,
A rural and rustic voice delights some men: Rustica voz et agrestis quosdam delectat.
Q Brutus, we are attempting quite a difficult and arduous task; but nothing is difficult to a lover; and I love and have always loved your genius, your pursuits, and your principles.
Antë, priils, póst, and postea, are elegantly separated from
quám ; as, I shall sooner forget my own name, than the benefits which you have conferred upon me: Nomen meum priès obliviscar,
quam qua, apud me collocásti beneficia,
1. You know, that at a certain time, I went to Metapontus with you, and that I never retired to my host before I had seen the very place and the house where Pythagoras had spent his life.
2. I shall answer, that Caesar, if I know him well, will consult your honour before his own interest.
3. It becomes a wise man to try everything by words and persuasion, before he has recourse to arms.
Quâm placed between two words may be more elegantly put before the comparative; as, Amicitia quân pecunia delectat ampliès: except when it comes with magis and potius, which it should immediately follow.
1. Hence friendship seems to originate from nature, rather than from weakness.
2. More people study to obtain riches than virtue.
3. Good men are always more suspected by tyrants than bad men; for virtue is always very formidable to them.
When the English words the other, or another, are rendered by a repetition of the same substantive to which it refers, or two words occur in the same sentence, one of which is derived from the other, they must closely follow one another; as, One love is expelled by another, as one spike is removed by the other: Amore amor, ut clavus clavo, truditur. As also two words having a contrary signification, if they are opposed to each other, give greater elegance to the sentence, if no other word intervenes between them, as thus their opposition becomes more evident; as, They, who wish to appear learned in the sight of fools, appear fools in the sight of the learned: Qui stultis eruditi videri volunt, stulti eruditis videntur.
1. One wedge drives in the other. 2. One hand washes the other. 3. The rashness of the son verified the wise saying of the father. 4. For how is it, that old age creeps upon youth faster than youth on childhood 9 5. Friends take the greatest delight in the society of friends. 6. That is called a civic crown which a citizen presents to the citizen, by whom he has been preserved, as a pledge of his safety, and of the preservation of his life (testem vitae, salutisque percepta). 7. You covet money and reject virtue. 8. Despair and necessity render even the timid brave.
When, for the sake of brevity and elegance, alius, alius, or, diversi, diversi, each in their proper cases, are used for one man this, and another man that; different people this, and different people that; as, One man says this, another that, Alius aliud dicit; they must closely follow each other. And so alius alid, or aliorsum, for one man to one place, another to a different place; and alius, aliundé, for one man on this side, the other on that side.
1. One patron has defended my cause with much more zeal than the other.
2. They were disputing across the river, one on this side, the other on that side.
Alius, alius, signifying some and other, will be separated; and if we speak of only two, the adjective alter will be used instead of alius.
1. Some men we see, who excel in swiftness for the course, and others in strength and vigour for wrestling. 2. One of whom has betrayed the army, and the other has sold it.
The pronoun quisque is generally placed after suus, sibi, se; and when it is joined to superlatives and comparatives, as it were a substantive with its adjective, or coming with numeral and cardinal nouns, it should always be placed after them ; as, Suum cuique pulchrum est.
1. Every man loves his own verses best. 2. Such is the alarming situation of affairs (usque aded undique turbatur), that every man dreads his own destiny. 3. Every seventh day is dedicated to sacred purposes. 4. Every good (optimus) scholar thinks so.
On the contrary, the possessive pronouns meus, suus, &c. are generally placed after their substantives; as, pater meus; except when an adjective or a preposition is added to the substantive, and then the possessive is usually placed first.
1. Our love towards you is very conspicuous.
2. I only beg of you, that you will substitute me in the place of Hirtius, both on account of your love for me, and my respect for you. (Though, as Quintilian remarks, there is no great certainty in these exceptions, as they depend wholly upon the perspicuity and harmony of the sentence.)
Observe, likewise, that a pronoun primitive is elegantly placed between the pronoun possessive and the substantive with which it agrees; as,
Your labour is profitable to me: Tuus mihi labor prodest.
1. Our studios delight him greatly.
2. Your letters were brought me at a time when I could not but receive the greatest comfort from them; for your intimacy is by no means unpleasing to me (mihi dulcissima est),
3. Some news has been brought, which affected me more on your account than on mine.
Though adjectives should, in general, be placed before their substantives, yet comparatives and superlatives, nouns of number, these adjectives, omnis, nullus, alienum, aliud, alterum, utrumque, solum, ullum, tale, quodvis, quodlibet, totum, singula, catera, reliqua, multa, are more elegantly placed after their substantives. 1. But we are impelled to learn by a fairer hope and greater rewards. 2. He was invested with the most honourable offices and the most important employments. ...All the merit of virtue consists in action; in which, however, there is often some intermission. 4. He has comprised in one book the history of seven hundred years. 5. He has already reignéd twenty-three years since that time (jam inde ab eo tempore). 6. We often see that shame gets the better of those whom no reason could overcome.
Nouns of dignity, profession, praise, contempt, are generally placed before the proper names to which they belong. 1. You see before your eyes Catiline, that most audacious man.
2. Lucius Cotta, a man of excellent understanding and exemplary
prudence. 3. We are here warring against Antony, our colleague, the most in
famous of all gladiators.
Observe that the proper name agrees more elegantly by apposition with the person or personal pronoun than with the common name ; as, Whose name is Iulus, Cui nomen Iulo.
Ataulphus, after the birth of a son, to whom he gave the name of Theodosius, seemed to feel a greater regard for the Roman republic.
If there are several pronouns in a sentence, they are elegantly placed together, if it can be done without causing any confusion or ambiguity to the sense; and, indeed, the best writers, in order to give more force and energy, either to a primitive or a demonstrative pronoun, join several of them to the very same substantive; as,
I come from your brother, he commends himself to you. Venio a fratre tuo, is se tibi commendat. 1. You, that very same wretch, who have threatened destruction to whole cities and countries. 2. You have done so well, that no one thinks himself well recommended to you, without some letters of mine. 3. But the first great rule of justice is, that no one, without being
attacked by an unprovoked injury, should commit violence against any one.
There is a peculiar elegance in the structure of a sentence, when the relative of one clause can be immediately followed by the relative of the subsequent clause, if it is in a different case from the former ; as, I admire, their folly who arrogate to themselves alone those divine arts, which they ought not even to meddle with: Eorum stultitiam miror, qui, quas ne attingere quidem debebant, has divinas artes sibi solis arrogant.
Some philosophers of our age are also guilty of this error, who express, in words, far removed from common usage, new, and often inelegantly coined by themselves, and with an affectation of too great
subtilty, those things which they might deliver in popular and perspicuous language.
If we wish to add some circumstance to the subject of which we are speaking, or to gain more attention to it, then we may add one of the demonstrative pronouns, is, idem, &c., with the conjunction et or que, and thus form an additional member of the sentence; as,
He wore a garment which came down to his ankles, mean and dirty : Weste erat indutus talari, et ed tetrá et sordidd.
l, I have a son, an only one.
2. Pansa, the consul (et is consul), did not blush to declaim.
3. Alexander defeated Darius with his immense army, and that when a young man.
4. I have only received one letter from you, and that a very short one.
5, I was certainly out of my senses to endeavour to enter into a contest with an academician, and rhetorician too.
The pronouns ille, iste, &c. are also added, with the word quidem, when one quality is to be granted and the other denied on the same subject; as,