I beg you to forgive me, if I shall say any thing with too great freedom: Ego, si quid liberius dizero, ignoscatis velin.

1. I beg of you to send me the book, if you have it.

.2. The atrocity of the deed would scarcely appear credible to man:* if the parricide were not almost exposed to the manifest view or all.

* Clauses denoting a concession, beginning by etsi, etiamsi, quanquam, licet, ut, &c. as, x . • * And though they are many, yet they stand in need of a

teacher and experience; Qui, quanquam plurimi sunt, docto

rem usumque desiderant.

1. I would not do that, though it were in my power. " (It is better to make use of a transposition, with the addition of tamen, and say, ego, quanquam poteram, tamen, &c.) * 2. You will determine that there is no occasion for a long speech, though time enough for speaking might" have been granted us. (with the addition of tamen in its proper place.) *-

Interrogative clauses, which mark, at the same time, the extent and object of the thing, known by the particles quis, quid, an, utrum, cur, quomodo, quemadmodum, &c. as, instead of saying, Nescio quis sit ; Quis sit, nescio, is more elegant.

1. It is very evident, what is right; but it does not so fully appear (non ita planè), what is expedient.

2. You see what power he had ; now hear what actions he performed (quas res gesserit). --

3. Concerning which, O judges, I neither can discover how I can speak, nor how I can be silent.

Clauses expressing likeness or comparison, beginning by velut, quasi, ut, tanquam, &c.

1. I was silent, as if I had not heard. (Ego, tanquam.... is better than silui, tanquam.)

2. When this sacrilegious wretch, the enemy and despoiler of every, thing sacred and religious, had seen this divine image, he was seized with such a burning desire and madness, as if he himself had received a stroke from that very torch, that he (iste) ordered the magistrates to pull it to pieces (ut eam demoliantur), and deliver it to him.

Relative clauses beginning by qui, qualis, quantus, quot, quoties, quum, quantopere, ut, ubi, should in general be placed before their corresponding clauses, beginning by is, talis, tantus, tot, toties, tam, tantopere, ita, ibi, expressed or understood; subject, however, to those exceptions, to which we adverted before. Qui followed by is : 1. God loves those who pursue virtue. (Qui rirtuti student, eos,

&c. and not Deus amat cos qui.)

2. In those, icho hare a superior #. of soul, the desire of money is directed to the acquisition of power (spectat ad opes).

3. } . not say this for the sake of aggravating the circumstances (rerum in pejus augendarum causá), but I will truly explain to you those sensations which I myself received.

So also the compounds of qui and quis, as quicumque, quidquid, &c. . That will remain all your own (totum et proprium tuum), whaterer support you afford the commonwealth in these most dangerous times. - -

Qualis followed by talis; as,

He is just such a man as his father was : Qualis pater fuit, talis hic est.

J. It is easy to perceive, if you wish to retrace the annals of past ages, that the state and the people have always been such as the great men of the state were; and that whatever changes have taken place in the morals of the great, the same will also follow in the people.

2. I beg of you that you would now prove yourself such a man as you have shown yourself before.

Quantus followed by tantus:

So much esteem shall I suppose that you have for me, as you bestow care and attention in the preservation of your health.

Quot followed by tot:

1. You have read almost as o books as I have seen.

2. There are as many stars in the heavens which escape the human sight, as there are which are beheld in the clearest night.

Quoties followed by toties.

1. We cannot but admire the divine wisdom as often as we contemplate the plants, and other productions of the earth.

2. He always came off conqueror, as often as he engaged with the enemy.

Quam followed by tam, and quamdiu by tamdiu:

But if he had been as dark and secret in the execution, as he was daring in the contrivance, he might, on some occasions, have even deceived us; but there is this most fortunate circumstance attending him, that his unparalleled audacity is usually joined with the most singular stupidity.

Quantopere followed by tantopere :

If men studied as much to adorn the mind and cultivate the understanding, as they labour to adorn the body, nothing would be more common than wisdom and virtue.

Ut, quemadmodum, sicut, followed by ita, sic:

1. With the same fortitude ought we to bear not only this calamity, but even the total overthrow of our fortune, as we have borne our former prosperity with calmness and moderation.

2. For he rendered his views and designs most evident to all, in his hope and expectation of corrupting juice. as he was barefaced and open in seizing all the money he could.

But sometimes, as in the following instance, and in forms of adjuration, ita will be more elegantly followed by ut; as,

So may you return safe into your country, after having laid the city in ashes, as you succour the distress of an afflicted father, and listen

to his humble petition. -

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The complexion of the times is such, that every one thinks his own condition the most miserable, and wishes least to be where he is.

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of conjunctions,


Conjunctions give a coherence and force to the sentence, and are necessary to elucidate the subject, which without them would be unintelligible. Their proper disposition is therefore of the greatest consequence. Such, indeed, is their utility, that the best writers often multiply them by the figure polysyndeton ; and the few cases, where the connexion will not suffer by their absence, are chiefly in lofty subjects, that demand great vehemence of expression, and mark some sudden affection or agitation of the mind; when the gesture or action of the speaker may be supposed to supply their place; as in that well-known exclamation of Cicero, Abiit, excessit, evasit, erupit ! In the connexion of single words which have some difference in their meaning, though they agree closely with each other, with the same nominative, or the same verb, where the English would be content with one and, the Latins use two, or even more. This double et has the force of the double tum, non modó, sed etiam ; as, He favours, notices and loves me beyond the rest: Me pra, ceteris et colit et observat et diligit. 1. I wish you to demand and expect everything from me. 2. The day after, in the morning, the Germans, persisting in their

treachery and dissimulation, eame in great numbers (frequentes) to the camp.

The repetition of the et is made for the sake of perspicuity, because the mind of the hearer naturally expects something more to follow, when it has been prepared for it by one of the conjunctions; as,

Liber tibi jam redditus est, aut brevi reddetur: It is not known whether the sentence is to end at redditus est, or not, as it stands; but when you add, liber tibi aut jam redditus est, aut brevi reddetur, that doubt vanishes from the beginning; but it must be observed, that if the words to be connected mark no difference with each other, there must be but one conjunction ; as, Not a single act of bravery could pass unobserved ; for all the adjoining hills and eminences, which afforded a near prospect of the sea, were covered with our men.

The connexion, especially in grave and serious subjects, is often made by the repetition of the preceding word, instead of a conjunction ; as, I think that nothing is more sweet, more delightful, or more worthy the liberty of man, than friendship : Amicitid nihil dulcius, nihil suavius, nihil hominis libertate dignius esse puto. 1. Nor is the sound of the trumpet the same, when the army is marching to an engagement, or when it sounds a retreat. 2. They have chosen me as their refuge against oppression, as the avenger of their wrongs, the patron of their rights, and the sole manager of the present impeachment (actorem causa totius). 3. God has provided for the wants, and the conveniences, and the preservation of man. - * * * When the words denote similitude or comparison, instead of et, we may connect them by ut, followed by ita; as, You have performed the greatest and the most useful actions : Res, ut maximas, ita utilissimas, gessisti. 1. The people of Tarsus, who are the very worst of allies, and the people of Laodicea, who surpass them in folly and perverseness, sent of their own accord for Dolabella ; from both which cities he levied and formed the image of an army, having by their numbers the appearance of a Grecian army. 2. Your country will for ever love and revere your name, for you have performed the greatest and most useful exploits.

When it is necessary to introduce a circumstance of greater weight than what precedes it, it is elegantly connected by quid 2 quod; as,

A wise man lives contented, and, indeed, the wiser a man is, the more resigned he is in his death : Sapiens contentus wirit : quid 2 quod sapientissimus quisque animo aquissimo morifur.

1. I have ever been ready to be of service to you in whatever things I could, with my assistance and my advice : nay, I have not even denied you my own garments and money.

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