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1. He declared that he would no longer lend his assistance to the senate, in their proceedings (grassanti) against the people; that he would interfere if they persevered in their #. tyranny; but, if they thought that he could be as cruel as the senators, that he would go away with his soldiers, and no longer be present at their civil broils.
Instead of quod attinet ad id quod, and which the English itself renders by as to what, it is more elegant simply to use quod.
As to what some men have thought, that the soul itself will one day (olim) perish, they are most egregiously mistaken.
And, on the contrary, the best writers do not use quod ad, with the accusative, for as to, in regard to, but always quod attinet, quod spectat ad; as, As to you : quod ad vos attinet.
.4s to you, I never saw a man more perniciously prodigal.
In stating an objection, instead of saying, at objici possit, objiciat quis, &c., it will be sufficient simply to make use of at, and the answer may be made with, or even without, at. .
In this I have often been struck with admiration at the dignity, the justice, and the wisdom manifested by Caesar. He always uses the most honourable names towards Pompey. But some one will say, that he showed the most persecuting and vindictive spirit towards his person. . But these were the deeds of arms, and the insolence of victory, and not of Caesar.
In the connexion of several arguments, the Latins do not enumerate them by primö, Secundo, tertià, &c., but by primilm, deinde, tum, denique, postremö; and, instead of those words of enumeration, as, tum, pratered, insuper, &c., other forms of connexion may be used, as, accedit quod; ut taceam, omittam, &c.
We must first consider, that our kindness should hurt nobody; secondly, that it should not be above our faculties; thirdly, that it may be exercised with dignity; and, lastly, attended with the greatest honesty.
OF THE SIMPLE WARIATION OF WORDS.
As nothing contributes more to elegance of style than a cmange or variation of words, to which the scholar should be early introduced, we shall briefly show how it may be effected. This variation is either simple, and consists in the mere change of one word into another synonymous word or phrase, or it is rhetorical or ornamental, as, by the accession of another expression, more full, dignified, or smooth, the simple idea receives greater ornament, and, by this metaphorical and circuitous manner, assumes the form of a period. Thus, to give an example of a simple variation by means of a synonymous phrase: Ingenium est omnium hominum a labore proclive ad libidimem.—Ter. May be varied thus: Ea est omnium mortalium indoles ut a labore ad voluptatem rutajić. Thus again, to show the ease with which a sentence may be almost infinitely varied: In hoc natura efficere quid possit videtur experta. In the genitive: In hoc natura, quanta vis sit, satis perspectum est. In the dative: Natura, quid efficere liceat, in hoc compertum est. In the accusative: Naturam, quid efficere possit, experiri voluisse arbitror. In the ablative: In hoc quid a natură effici possit, compertum est.
An adjective may be changed into a substantive; as, He reproaches his legs for being too slender : Crurum nimiam tenuitatem vituperat.
1. He was sufficiently eloquent, liberal, versed in civil law, as well as the military art.—(Say habchat enim....)
2. How senseless must J. think yourselves, who, while you possess the real comforts and blessings in life, harass your minds with
phantoms of imaginary evils, and, instead of enjoying the substantial f. of fortune, torture yourselves with the apprehension of future ca
amities which are never likely to happen
And, in the same manner, an adjective may be elegantly put in the neuter gender, and its substantive in the genitive case; as, instead of hanc laudem consecutus es, say, hoc laudis. . . . . 1. The sun imparts the same light and heat to all these nations. 2. You have this nobility, and I shall always pay you that def. erence.
Two substantives are often put for one; each, however, having its proper force and meaning; for they are not redundant, but are intended to give greater perspicuity or harmony to the sentence; as, instead of offendere hominem, we shall say offendere animum hominis, because it is his mind which is offended; and offendere hominem might be mistaken for, to find a man. We shall be more accurate in saying gladii mucrone ictus, than gladio.
1. Say now that you were overreached by him, who refused such an immense sum of money not on account of his indolence, but on account of his magnificence. (Here inertiam laboris may be used, and followed by magnificentiam liberalitatis, for the sake of that concinnitas, or equality of the clauses, which we shall mention afterwards.)
2. The whole senate, (the state or condition of) the judiciary proceedings, the whole commonwealth itself, has undergone a revolution.
The pronoun personal may be rendered by the pronoun substantive.
Though Caesar has never been my friend, but had always shown a disinclination to me, though he had slighted my friendship, and acted the part of an implacable enemy towards me, yet, after the great things he has done, and still continues to do, I could not help loving him.
It may be observed, that the dative acquisitive is often ele. gantly used instead of the genitive. When they heard that he had been condemned unheard, they threw
themselves at the judge's feet, and prayed that he might be saved from the gallows (ut e furca redimeretur).
The English adjective may be sometimes rendered by a substantive, and the word with which it agrees be put in the genitive case; as,
You will easily judge how few orators there are and have been : Facillime quanta oratorum sit, semperque fuerit paucitas judicabis :
Instead of quam pauci . . . .
1. ..]ncient friendship, the dignity of the man, and my constant practice through life, jointly called upon me to defend him.
2. ..] good voice, though it is very desirable, it is not in our power to acquire, but to exercise and improve it, is certainly in the power of
This variation generally takes place when the chief stress lies upon the adjectives, as implying a cause, reason, or something like it.
A substantive may be changed into a verb by a periphrasis; as, Nor could I foresee that accident : Neque quod accidit, pravidere poteram. - 1. Nor did I prognosticate those crents, when I said they would happen; but I was only urged by my fears, lest they should happen; when I considered the possibility of them, and, at the same time, foresaw their pernicious tendency, if they should happen. 2. But I make this concession to you, that you may pass over those things which, from your silence, you allow not to exist.
But, above all, a SUPERLATIVE will admit of many different modes of variation.
A superlative is elegantly changed into a comparative, with a negative, especially with the pronoun relative, qui, qua, quod; as,
A most courteous and learned man: Vir quo non allos humanior, quo non doction atter.
1. He was most eminent, and indeed unparalleled, in his virtues and vices... (Say, nihil fuit.)
2. Plato, who was the most ingenious and learned of men, laid it down as a maxim, that those republics would enjoy a lasting hap!. whose government was in the hands of the wise and the Carned.
Observe that quo is more elegantly used with a comparative than ut, to express the purpose. 1. He paid his debts (nomina liberavit) that he might lead a happier life.
2. We broke open the seal (linum incidimus), that we might detect the conspirators the more easily.
Or it may be rendered comparatively, with an affirmative, either by an interrogative or a repetition of the words; as, A most courteous man : Vir humanus, si quisquam omninó humanus; Or, Quis, or, quid hoc viro humanior, or humanius 2 1. Believe me, your brother is a most studious man. 2. Croesus was the richest man in the world; and yet neither his numerous forces, nor his riches, could avail any thing against the attack of a small but disciplined army, inured to poverty and hardships.
A superlative receives an additional force, if its comparative is introduced with it, as having more power than the superlative : in this manner;
Plato a most learned man : Plato quovis doctissimo doction.
1. In this, indeed, I am more miserable than you, because my calamity is accompanied with yours, and common to both.
2. Be persuaded that those are the fairest talents, which are employed for the good of others (ad communem utilitatem).
Cicero and the best writers often increase the force of the superlative by the addition of such expressions as these; unus omnium, unus, sine controversid, apprime, insigniter, egregie ; as,
You seem to me a most choice and excellent speaker: Unus omnium in dicendo mihi videris lectissimus.
1. I dare pronounce him to be the most eminent in the state for gemius and industry.
2. I cannot even promise it to that most learned and religious man, and who enjoys your greatest favour and friendship.
The variation of the superlative may be elegantly made by these verbs, contendere, certare, superare, or by cedere; as,
Cicero was the most eloquent of orators: Nemo oratorum cum Cicerone contendere audet eloquentiá.
1. Your brother is the greatest lover of literature that ever was.