my, that nobody needed the command of either tribune or centurion; and every one, even as a punishment, imposed upon himself labours extraordinary. 3. Because there had been an alarm, in the night, before Caesar's camp, they took it for an argument, that there could be no stealing out without discovery.

An adverb is often used for a substantive; as,

To speak with subtilty and evasion : Subtiliter et versute <licere.

1. With what prudence and despatch did he transact this business!

2. He read that book with so much earnestness that he seemed to devour its contents.

3. With truth, I can say, that if you consider the difficult service he had to perform, the obstinate resistance of the enemy, and the disadvantages of an intricate country, he conducted the army with great consideration and circumspection.

And especially ita, followed by si or ut, is often used for on that condition, with such an effect, restriction.

1. It is very expedient that there should be many accusers in a

state, that terror may restrain insolence and audacity; with this re

striction, however, it is expedient, that we do not become the sport and victims of wanton accusations (ut ne planè illudamur al accusattoribus).

2. I know that you will use every means in your power to be with us as soon as possible; I desire it, however, on this condition, that you do not make too much haste.

Unde is very frequently used for a quo, a quá, &c.

1. The man, from whom you came, is a very honest man. 2. The circumstance, from which you set out, is so well known to all, that it needs no further consideration.

Prepositions are often changed one for another.
Ob, for ante, is often used.
To place before one's eyes.
Prab for ante.
Driving a herd before him, he had passed the river in swimming.
Pro for ante.

1. Had he not, in the hearing of the people, sitting before the temple of Castor, said that no one could conquer, but he who had con

quered 2 -
2. Caesar stationed the legions before the intrenchment.

Per for in.

1. The war from the Sabines was by far the greatest, for they did nothing in heat or anger, nor did they make show of war before they were seen in the field.

2. He said so in joke.

Per for propter.

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The Celtae assailed the town Titurium with great violence in their way. Pro for in.

Whether a greater injury can be offered to a prince, you in your prudence judge.

Apud for in.

He was a wise son in Plutarch, who, being told by a friend that his father would disinherit him, answered, he will do nothing but what he should do.

Observe that Cicero never uses the phrases in laudem, in honorem: the best writers will say honoris gratiâ, laudis gratiâ.

A or ab for the English particle of

1. Let us go under that shade, to avoid the heat of the sun.

2. Cares are conversant in palaces: they fear not the glittering of gold.

3. He was of the bed-chamber to three kings successively.

4. She is not afraid of the snow.

Ad for circiter, speaking of uncertain numbers; but chiefly as an adverb without any case. 1. When he was about fifteen years old. 2. About four thousand men were slain. A or ab for post.

After these injunctions, he dismissed the assembly.

Secundum for post. After which games, only a few days elapsed.

Pro for secundum. He lives according to his dignity.

De for secundum. According to my opinion.

Ez for secundum. He has done every thing according to law.

Ad for secundum.

Triflers and deceivers, who speak every thing according to their inclination, but nothing according to truth.

Modern writers very commonly use juxta instead of secundum; but very improperly: as, according to Sallust: Juxta Sallustium, &c. It should be, Secundum Sallustium, or teste Sallustio, &c. Pro for ob or propter. Do this on account of the friendship that has long subsisted between

Prae for ob.
I cannot speak for, or on account of, my tears.

Ad for ob.

The senate had voted new levies on account of the report of the impending war.

A preposition may be used for a substantive.

A for a parte. 1. He stood on my side. 2. The army stood firm on the side of the infantry.

Ad for in regard to; by reason of; in comparison of

1. I will follow another course, less severe, indeed, in regard to the criminal (ad severitatem), but more useful with regard to the public

o 2. We know him to be a good man, and not illiterate, but nothing in comparison of Persius.

Prae and pro for in comparison of; in respect of; in proportion to. 1. Our littleness, in comparison of the bigness of their bodies, is matter of contempt with most of the Gauls. 2. The king, in consideration of his royal dignity, and in respect of his services, was most unworthily treated. 3. Education is generally the worse, in proportion to the wealth and grandeur of the parents. Conjunctions are often changed one for another

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It is not yet 110 years ago, since Lucius Piso got a law to be enacted against the corruption of magistrates (or extortion, de pecunits ...i. (This might also be rendered by ex quo.)

Observe, that, instead of saying die antequam venit, on the day before he came ; or die postguam venit, on the day after he came ; we elegantly say, pridie quám venit, and postridie quam venit. Usque eo for aded.

Dionysius the tyrant, being banished from Syracuse, kept a school at Corinth ; so impossible was it for him to live without empire.

Usque aded and usque for aded.

Some men are so possessed with ambition, that they are not content to have lived magnificently, unless they also are buried so.

Ot for nam, et, when preceded by tam, ita, tantus, &c.: this is done in order to draw sentences closer together, when the one clause is the effect or the consequence of the other, as we have seen before.

1. I am in the greatest perplexity and terror, and I know neither

what to do, nor which way to turn myself.
2. How could I be so inhuman, and refuse you your request.

Instead of quidem followed by sed or tamen, the Latins more frequently use cfsi, quanquam, licet, &c.; as,

We cannot indeed do every thing, but we must use every exertion : Etsi whinia non officere possimus, tamen omnes nervos intendere debemus.

I myself indeed, who am desirous of administering comfort to you, stand in the greatest need of consolation, because nothing of late has affected me more than your misfortune : however, I not only most earnestly exhort you, but entreat and conjure you by the ties of our mutual friendship, that you would be collected, show yourself a man, and consider on what conditions life was given us, and in what times we were born.



Cicero says, Quinam igitur dicendi est modus melior, qudm ut Latinë, ut planè, ut ornate, ut ad id, quodcunque agetur, aptè congruenterque dicamus. These rules, which he gives for the direction of the author, may, with equal propriety, be applied to the Latin writer. The first requisite for elegant composition is good Latinity, or a choice of such words and expressions as were in general use among the best Latin writers. The next thing necessary to be considered is, such an arrangement and position of words as may render the sense intelligible, and produce perspicuity, the true parent of elegance, without which the most studied selection of phrases will only create a confused chaos of unintelligible words. In order to effect this, the arrangement must assume the form of a period, with its proper members and proportions; not, however, that the sentence is to be extended or overcharged with unnecessary matter, merely for the sake of completing the exact parts and dimensions of a just period. What is observed by the aptè and congruenter is such an agreement of the words and ideas to the subject, that a proper connexion and correspondence may be maintained between the parts and the body, so as to form a perfect whole. Since a period is effected by a dissection of a primary sentence or proposition, by means of clauses that tend to explain, to define, to denote the cause, time or place of the subject, it is necessary that they should be inserted aptè, that is, after that word to which they properly belong: as we would say, ego librum, quia pulcher est, non vendam : and not ego, quia pulcher est, non vendam librum; which proves, also, what we have already observed, that those clauses, beginning by quia, licet, quum, quamvis, ubi, qui, &c., when introduced for the sake of a period, are not to begin the sentence, otherwise they could not be said to form a circuit, or period; but they must come after the nominative or some other word. And, when some practice and exercise have been bestowed upon the composition of a period, with


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