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sometimes called heroic cerse. It is the most ancient of all poetical measures, as well as the most dignified and harmonious. The use of the hexameter is not, however, confined to epic and heroic poetry. The satires and epistles of Horace are sufficient to prove that it is a measure no less adapted to the most familiar, than it is to the most exalted subjects.
A spondee is sometimes found in the fifth foot of a hexameter, instead of a dactyle, and gives to the line the name of a spondaic verse; as,
Próximits huic longo sed proximus interivällo.
When a spondee is substituted for a dactyle in the fifth foot of a hexameter, to prevent the line from appearing to move too heavily, the fourth foot is generally a dactyle.
It must always be observed in scanning. that when a word ending in a vowel or the consonant m is immediately followed by a word be ginning with another vowel, or the aspirate h, an elision of the preceding vowel generally takes place, and the final syllable of the word is not scanned nor counted in the line ; thus, in the three verses which
immediately follow, the syllables printed in italics are not considered as forming any part of a foot;
Obstäbätgue aliis àlijūd quíà | corpère in und.
Molliá cum duiris siné pondere halbentia pondus.
Quae postguam evolvit calcoque exemit ascervo.
The lines in the first two of the following exercises are al
ready divided into feet, so that the scanning of them will be completed by marking, and proving, by rules, the quantity of their syllables : the other lines must be divided, as well as marked and proved.
. EXERCISES. 1. Aurea prima Sáta est aetas, quae, vindice | nullo, Sponte suá, sine lege fildem rectumque collebat. 2. Judicis ora suised erant siné vindice tuti. Nondum casa suis peregrinum ut viseret orbem. 3. Nondum praecipites cingebant oppida fossae; Non tuba directi, non aris cornua flexi, 4. Non gålea, non ensis erant; siné militis usu, Mollia secărae perägebant otia gentes.
5. Ipsa quoque immünis, rastroque intacta, nec ullis Saucia vöméribus, per se débat omnia tellus.
6. Contentigue cibis, nullo cogente, creatis, Arbuteos foetus montanaque fraga legebant,
. Cornaque, et in duris harentia mora rubetis,
8. Wer erat acternum; placidique tepentibus auris Mulcebant Zephyri natos siné semine flores,
9. Mox etiam fruges tellus inărata ferebat; Nec renovatus ager gravidis canebat aristis.
A Pentameter verse is generally divided in scanning into two parts, the first of which consists of two feet, which are either dactyles or spondees, followed by a long syllable; the latter part is always composed of two dactyles, followed by another long syllable; as, Ipsé jūbët mortis tć méminissé Dülüs. Dā vēnilăm prépérāt vivéré némö siltis. Sit nóx clim sömnó | sit siné lité dilés. This is the most common, but not the most correct mode of scanning this species of verse. A pentameter properly consists, as its name implies, of five feet, of which the first two are either dactyles or spondees, the third a spondee, and the fourth and fifth anapaests, or dactyles reversed. Agreeably to this division, the last of the preceding lines would be scanned thus, Sit nox cum sömno sit siné lité diès.
This kind of verse is sometimes termed elegiac, because it is generally employed by the poets in elegiac and similar compositions. It is, bowever, seldom or never used alone in a poem, but is intermixed with hexameters, and sometimes with other measures.
In the exercises in this work, and, indeed, in poetry in gencral, a pentameter may be distinguished from a hexameter verse by the first word being printed somewhat within the boundary of the page, and consequently not beginning in a line with the other verses; thus, in the exercises, which immediately follow, every alternate line is a pentameter; the others are herameters.
1. Quae legis exillo, Theseu, tibi littore mitto, Unde tuam siné me vela tulêre ratem. .
2. Tempus erat, vitrea quo primum terra pruiná Spargitur, et tectae fronde queruntur aves.
3. Luna fuit : specto si quid nisi littora cernam; Quod videant, oculi nil nisi littus habent.
4. Nunc huc, nunc illuc, et utrôque siné ordine curro;
5. Ascendo; vires animus dabat; atque ita late
Caesur A is a division or separation of a foot, occasioned by the syllables, of which it is composed, belonging to different words: it is a term applied also to the last syllable or two last syllables of a word, when they form the first part of a foot.
The word casura is derived from caedo, casus, to cut off: its use has been adopted in versification either because the syllable, to which it is applied, is divided or cut off from the other syllables in the word by the termination of the preceding foot, or because the foot, in which the capsura takes place, is divided or separated, being composed of syllables belonging to different words.
The beauty of a verse depends in a great measure on the casura. It connects with each other the different words, of which the line is composed, and gives to it smoothness and harmony. It must not therefore be considered merely as an ornament, but as an essential requisite of every hexameter and pentameter verse. A line in which it is neglected is not only destitute of all poetic beauty, but can hardly be distinguished from prose, and, unless on peculiar occasions, in which harmony is designedly avoided, is not admissible in Latin oetry.
There are three kinds of caesura, the syllabic, the trochaic, and the monosyllabic. The syllabic caesura is that in which the first part of the divided foot consists of the last syllable of a word; as, Sylvèstrém tânăli músūm meditāris àvena. The syllabic appears to be the principal casura in Latin versification, and but few harmonious lines can be found, in which it is not introduced. If the ancients did not consider it indispensably necessary, it is evident that they seldom ventured to write a verse without it. The syllabic caesura may take place in a heroic verse at the triemimeris, penthemimeris, hephthemimeris, and sometimes at the enneemimeris; as, Si cánimus sylvās, sylva, sint | consillé dignac. Illé lá|tus nivālūm molli fültüs hyácinthó. The ancient fo. #. divided every line into half feet, and from this division the preceding names have been introduced. The triemimeris is that portion of a verse which contains its three first half feet; the penthemimeris is the part which contains five half feet; the hephthemimeris that which contains seven; and the enneemimeris that which comprises nine half feet. The trochaic casura is that in which the first part of the divided foot consists either of a long and short syllable remaining at the end of a word, or of an entire word comprised of one long and one short syllable; as, Fortúnātūs ūt illé, délós qui novit ālgrèstés. Although one syllabic caesura, at least, generally occurs in every
hexameter verse, yet the trochaic has nearly the same metrical effect, and often appears to be the principal casura in the verse; as,
Hic vir hic ést tibi quém promitti i sa piùs aidis.
The preceding is one of the few lines in which no cièsura but the monosyllabic occurs: the metrical effect of this capsura is by no means so great as that of the syllabic or trochaic, but many instances may be found, in which it appears to be the principal caesura in the Yerse.
A casura is not indispensably necessary in every foot of a verse. Those lines, in which it most frequently occurs, generally appear to be the most poetical, but, for the sake of that variety without which the most harmonious arrangement of words would soon become tedious, the casura is often omitted in one or more of the feet, and its situation is frequently varied.
In the first foot of a verse, the caesura may generally be omitted; as,
In the second foot, the casura is often omitted; but when this omission takes place, the word which begins the foot is generally of sufficient length to complete it, and to leave a . casural syllable in the next foot; as,
Squaméâ | convölvéns såblátó péctäré térgå.
The frequent recurrence of the verb mescio as a dactyle, and of the prepositions inter and inira as spondees, forming the second foot, appears on the first view to be inconsistent with the preceding rule, but it is in reality quite agreeable with it. It has been clearly ascertained that the preposition and its case were frequently pronounced with one accent, as one word; and there is reason to suppose that mescio was often connected in a similar manner with the word which followed it; thus the words inter se were pronounced, and consequently regarded in versification, as though they were written interse, and mescio quis as though written mescioquis. A similar connexion is not unusual in English words; thus some body is pronounced somebody, no body, nobody; can not, cannot.
The casura is not so frequently omitted at the penthemimeris; as it is in the other feet, and when it is omitted in the third, it always occurs in the fourth, and generally in the second foot: when this omission of the casura at the penthemimeris takes place, the third foot generally consists of the two or three first syllables of a word, which is finished in the next foot; as,