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sound : it therefore follows, that what would be a license in the beginning of a verse would be doubly so towards its close. No word ending with a short vowel should be placed before words beginning with sc, sp or st. Short vowels should be excluded from the last syllables of pentameters, and hardly ever be admitted to end a hexameter. The monotony occasioned by the recurrence of two as is to be avoided in the last penthemims of pentameters. A word ending with a diphthong can never be placed before a word beginning with the same diphthong. The adverb temere always precedes a word beginning with a long vowel, and the final e is always elided. Ac always precedes a consonant. Some of the above rules may occasionally be violated, even with advantage; but the beginner should reject every liberty, however it may be supported by the authority of the greatest poets, and conform strictly to the rules placed before him. The lines in the crercises which follow are designed to exemplify the preceding observations, and may be formed into verses by changing the arrangement of the words. The words printed in Italics are either compound words, which must be divided, or words which are designed to be placed at the beginning of the next line.
1. Ego non falsa loquar: ter acutum ensem sustulit, Ter recidit manus male sublato ense.
2. Sed timor obstitit et pietas ausis crudelibus, Castaque dextra refugit mandatum opus.
3. Aures vacent lite, insanaque jurgia protinus absint: —livida lingua, differ tuum opus.
4. Navita non moritur fluctu, non miles cuspide: Oppida, immunia funerei lethi, pollent.
5. Quácunque se medio agimine virgo furens tulit, Aruns subit, et tacitus lustrat vestigia.
des paret dictis genitoris, et inde
Summa pedum propere illigat plantaribus alis,
. Principio, mirantur naturam non reddere mare majus,
—quð sit aquarum tantus decursus,
Quð veniant omnia flumina ex omni parte. . Jamgue Titanis, surgens per confinia emeriti Phoebi, laté subvecta silenti mundo, Tenuaverat gelidum aera roriferå bigă.
. A quoreae aquae miscentur; asther caret ignibus,
Caecaque nox tenebris hyemisque suisque premitur.
Movit et Côos recessus fama bellorum,
Hic purpureum ver; hic circumfundit flumina varios
. Dixerat: ille concutit pennas madidantes novo nectare,
—et maritat glebas foecundo rore.
Elision is the cutting off of the final vowel or the two
final letters of a word, and is divided into synalaepha and ecthlipsis.
preceding it, in the last syllable of a word, when the follow ing word begins with a vowel or the aspirate h; as, Illé déum vitam accipilét divisqué wildebit. The preceding definitions of synalepha and ecthlipsis. must be un derstood with some limitations. The final letters are elided or omitted in scanning only, and not in writing, nor in the usual mode of pronouncing a verse. Hence the first two lines here quoted from Virgil, though scanned with the vowels cut off, are always written and generally pronounced thus, Humida solstitia atque hyemes orate serenas, Agricolae; hybernolaetissima pulvere farra. Two vowels at the end of a word are sometimes cut off, when the next word begins with a vowel; as, Stellio et lucifulgis congestá culbiliá blattis. Synalaepha never takes place in the words 0, heu, ah; proh, ve, rah, and hei; it is also occasionally omitted by poetical license in other words; as, O påtér, 0 hominum divumque telternă pâtéstäs. Et succus pécori, et lác subducitàr |agnis. A ..". or diphthong, when preserved from elision by poetical license, becomes common, but it is generally made short; as, Ter sunt | conasti o: ko | Ossam. Imple|runt montés, flé|runt Rhödö|péia | arcés. A vowel at the end of a verse is not, in general, cut off, when the first word of the following verse begins with a vowel; but if the pause, which intervenes between the lines, is not required by the sense, but is merely that slight pause, which the end of the verse necessarily occasions, the final vowel, as well as the consonant m, is sometimes elided; as, Jaetemur, doceas: ignari hominumque locorumque Erramus, vento huc et vastis fluctibus acti. Jamgue iter emensi, turres ac tecta Latinorum Ardua cernebant juvenes, muroque subibant. When the final vowel of a word is elided, the effect of the syllable as a caesura is hardly perceptible, and it ought not, perhaps, to be regarded, in any instance, as a caesural syllable. The consonants was often elided by the ancient poets, sometimes with the vowel "...of it, but more frequently alone, and consequently with the final syllable of the word preserved; as,
Vicit Olympiá nunc sénilo confectus quiescit. A verse in which there are more than two elisions is most
commonly deficient in harmony; as the following pentameter from Catullus;
Elisions may generally be introduced into a verse without diminishing its harmony, when the final vowel of a word is the same as that which begins the next word, and when the elided vowel is either naturally short or followed by a long syllable; as, Ipse égó | cână légām ténérá liniginé mälä. Tüm casilā ātgue àliis intéxèns sūavibüs hèrbis. An elision has seldom a good effect when it occurs in the first syllable of a verse, in the end of the fifth foot of a hexameter, immediately after the penthemimer is in a pentameter, or in a word ending with a long vowel before a word beginning with a short vowel; as, Nam ūt férülä caldās méritàm mājörä siibiré. Löripédém réctus dé|ridéât | AFthiopem älbús, Trójá né|fās! commāné sépulcrum Európa Asilāqué. Mé míséro èripúlisti omniã|nostrá bølnā. The exercises which follow are designed to exemplify the observations in the former chapters on casura and arrangement, as well as the remarks on elision in this chapter: the introduction #. synalapha or ecthlipsis will not therefore be sufficient to form them into verses, without a change in the position of the words. The sentences in English are intended to be translated into Latin verse, by an application of the rules of syntax, as well as of prosody, to the corresponding words in Latin, which follow them: in these exercises, a change in the arrangement of the words is not necessary.
ExERCISES. 1. Nempe sylva inter varias nutritur columnas, Laudaturque domus, qual prospicit longos agros.
2. Wivite felices, et vivite memores nostri,
Hic licet impunè proferre occultos dolores,
6. Nec inclementia rigidi coeli conterret eum,
. Aut si fata movent, paratur orbi generique Humano lues matura; dehiscent terraene, Subsidentdue urbes! an fervidus aér tollet temperien 3 —infida tellus negabit segetes? 8. Tune potes audire murmura vesani ponti fortis? et potes jacere in dură nave? Tu fulcire positas pruinas teneris pedibus' Tu, Cynthia, potes ferre insolitas nives? 9. Qualis ubi Boreas erupit ab Arctois antris, Perverrens aérios campos rapido turbine, It ferus coelo, et insequitur piceas nubes toto athere, dant victa locum et cedunt cava nubila.
10. And now ambassadors came from the city of Latinus,
Crowned with branches of olive, and supplicating favour.
11. Scarcely had the next rising day fringed the tops of the mountains with light, When first from the deep ocean the horses of the sun raise themselves, And breathe forth the light of day from their panting nostrils.
Posterus vix summus spargo lumen mons
Synaeresis is the contraction of two syllables into one; as, alveo, pronounced as a dissyllable.
Synaeresis often takes place in the words antehac, dehine, dein, deinde, dii, diis, ii, iidem, iisdem, proinde, semianimis, semihomo; in Greek genitives in ei; and in several tenses of the verbs anteambulo, anteo, desum and suesco; as,