Qui, quae, quod, nominative to the verb.

Caesar, who conquered Pompey. The gales which move the trees. The sun which shines. The king who loves his subjects. Cato, who was wise, loved his country. The sea, which flows, will ebb. That which seems to be useful. All things which may be necessary for life. Modesty, which is the ornament of life. The dog Cerbèrus, who has three heads. The dogs of Actaeon, who tore their master in pieces. The muddy bulrush, which covers over the pastures. The lambs which wander in the mountains. O boys, who gather flowers and strawberries growing on the ground, fly ye hence, a cold [deadly] snake lurks in the grass.

Pompey, Pompeius : gales, aura ; trees, arbor; subjects, civis: wise, sapiens; country, patria : ebb, refluo": that, (id); seems, videora; useful, (utile): all things, (omnia); necessary for life, (ad wivendum necessaria); ornament, ornatus : three, tres, (tria); heads, caput : Actaeon; tore in pieces, dilacéro"; their master, suus dominus: the muddy bulrush, limósus juncus; covers over, obdüco” pres. sulj. ; the pastures, (pascua) : wander, erro! ; gather, lego”; strawberries, (fraga); growing on the ground, (nascentia humi); hence, hinc, cold, frigidus; snake, anguis; lurks, late0”; in the grass, (in herbá.)

The relative governed.

The mountains which we saw. The wine which they draw out. The pleasant fields which we leave. Brutus, whom the Roman matrons lamented. The shattered ships which the merchant refits. I see Italy, which your ancestors conquered. Take thou the wealth which I have. The arrows which they send forth are deadly. Croesus, whose wealth and riches were remarkable. The rivers which (we left liquimus). There is a God whom we worship, to whom there is none like. Begin, little boy, to whom thy parents have not smiled.

Draw out, promo”: pleasant, dulcis ; fields, arvum : matrons, matröna ; lamented, lugeo’: shattered, quassus; refits, reficio* : your ancestors, (majöres vestri); to take, accipio": send forth, emitto”;

deadly, lethalis: remarkable, insignis : none, nullus; like, similis : begin, incipio"; smiled, rideo.

PHRASES. 1. There are some that say so. 1. Sum qui affirmo'. 2. There is a thing that trou- ; 2. Sum ego (dat.) qui

bles me. (quod) malé habeo (3 p.


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Riches and honour and power Divitiae et honor et poare uncertain [things]. tentia sum incertus. For every thing, virtue, fame, Omnis enim res, virtus, honour, obey riches. fama, decus, divitiae dat. pareo". Nor poverty, nor death, nor Sapiens acc. nequepauchains, terrify a wise man. pertas, neque mors, neque

vincillum terreo". Nor the beautiful Ganges, and Nec pulcher Ganges, the Hermus, turbid with gold, atque aurum abl. turbidus [.. e. golden sand] can match Hermus laus abl. Italia

with the praises of Italy. gen. certo". A wolf and a lamb, driven by Lupus et agnus sitis thirst, had come to the same (siti) compulsus plur, ad river. rivus acc. idem acc. (eundem) venio". A cow, and a she-goat, and a Vacca, et capella, et

sheep, patient under injury, were patiens ovis injuria gen. companions with a lion in the socius sum perf. cum leo forests. abl. in saltus abl. plur. An ant and a fly were con- Formica et musca contending sharply which was of tendo” acriter qui (quacj

greater consequence. plus sum (pluris esset). Menelaus and Paris, being Menelâus et Paris ar

armed, fought for Helen and her mátus pugno propter Hel

riches. êna acc. et divitia acc.


Marius and Sylla waged a civil war. I and my brotherread. Thou, Peter, and I, will write (1 pers. plur.). The bow and (arrows calāmī) are good (neut. plur.). The bow and arrows which (ncut. plur.) thou hast broken. Pyrāmus and Thisbe held contiguous houses. (Now jamgue) the sea and the earth had (imperf.) no distinction. In the mean time, the winged horses of the sun, Pyroëis, Eöus, and AEthon, and the fourth Phlegon, fill the air with inflamed neighings, and beat the barriers (with their feet, pedibus).

Civil, civilis: Peter, Petrus : bow, arcus : broken, frango: held, to neo?; contiguous, contiguus : no distinction, (nullum discrimen): in the mean time, interea; winged, volucris; and the fourth, quartusque; fill, impleo?; air, aura, plur. ; with inflamed neighings, (flammiferishinnittbus); beat, pulso"; barrier, repagillum.

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ENGLISH To BE TURNED INTo LATIN. The rustic rabble forbid. A part crowd the forum. A

part lay the foundations. are deceived with tricks.


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Rustic, rusticus; rabble, turba ; forbid, veto : crowd, celebrol :

lay, pono"; foundation, fundamen ; both, uterque; deceive, deludo";

tricks, dolus abl.; were wounded or slain, (fuerunt vulnerati autoccisi)

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Infinitive JMood, or Part of a Sentence, mau serve as a - JNominative.


To die for one's country is sweet and becoming.

How long life will be is uncertain.

Part of the men fell in the War.


To fly when our country is invaded, is a base [thing].

To restrain the tongue is not the least virtue.

To see the sun is a pleasant [thing].

To overcome the mind, to restrain anger, to moderate victory, is excellent.

Alas! how difficult it is not to betray crime by the countenance

To excel in knowledge is honourable; but to be ignorant is base.

Dulce et decórum est pro patriá mori.

Incertum est quâm longa vita futura sit.

Partim viròrum cecidèrunt in bello.

19. Fugio cum patria noster oppugno' sum turpis. Compesco' lingua non minimus sum virtus. Video solo sum jucundus. Animus vinco, iracundia cohibeo", victoria tempêro praeclárus sum. Heu! quâm difficilis sum crimen non prodo' vultus abl. In scientia abl, excello" pulcher sum; sed nescio (nescire) turpis,

To seek true glory is commendable; but to pursue vain

glory is dishonourable.

To speak is not the same [thing] as

to declaim. It is one [thing] to speak in Latin, but another to speak it grammatically. (To die emóri) bravely is more

onourable than to live basely. It is easy to oppress an innocent [man].

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