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HERACLITUS.

All this is, indeed, true; but then thou hast no real love or feeling for thy species. The calamities of mankind excite thy mirth: and this proves that thou hast no regard for men, nor any true respect for the virtues which they have unhappily abandoned.

Fenelon, Archbishop of Cambray.

SECTION II.

DIONYSIUS, PYTHIAS, AND DAMON.

Genuine virtue commands respect, even from the bad.

DIONYSIUS.

AMAZING! What do I see? It is Pythias just arrived.- -It is indeed Pythias. I did not think it possible. He is come to die, and to redeem his friend!

PYTHIAS.

Yes, it is Pythias. I left the place of my confinement, with no other views, than to pay to Heaven the vows I had made; to settle my family concerns according to the rules of justice; and to bid adieu to my children, that I might die tranquil and satisfied.

DYONYSIUS.

But why dost thou return? Hast thou no fear of death? Is it not the character of a madman to seek it thus voluntarily?

PYTHIAS.

I return to suffer, though I have not deserved death. Every principle of honour and goodness, forbids me to allow my friend to die for me."

DIONYSIUS.

Dost thou, then, love him better than thyself?

PYTHIAS.

No; I love him as myself. But I am persuaded that

I ought to suffer death, rather than my friend; since it was Pythias whom thou hadst decreed to die. It were not just that Damon should suffer, to deliver me from the death which was designed, not for him, but for me only.

DIONYSIUS.

But thou supposest, that it is as unjust to inflict death upon thee, as upon thy friend.

PYTHIAS.

Very true; we are both perfectly innocent; and it is equally unjust to make either of us suffer.

DIONYSIUS.

Why dost thou then assert, that it were injustice to put him to death, instead of thee?

PYTHIAS.

It is unjust, in the same degree, to inflict death either on Damon or on myself; but Pythias were highly culpable to let Damon suffer that death, which the tyrant had prepared for Pythias only.

DIONYSIUS.

Dost thou then return hither, on the day appointed, with no other view, than to save the life of a friend, by losing thy own?

PYTHIAS.

I return, in regard to thee, to suffer an act of injustice which it is common for tyrants to inflict; and, with respect to Damon, to perform my duty, by rescuing him from the danger he incurred by his generosity

to me.

DIONYSIUS.

And now, Damon, let me address myself to thee. Didst thou not really fear, that Pythias would never return and that thou wouldst be put to death on his account?

DAMON.

I was but too well assured, that Pythias would punctually return; and that he would be more solicitous to

keep his promise, than to preserve his life. Would to heaven, that his relations and friends had forcibly detained him! He would then have lived for the comfort and benefit of good men; and I should have the satisfaction of dying for him?

DIONYSIUS.

What! Does life displease thee?:

DAMON.

Yes; it displeases me when I see and feel the power of a tyrant.

DIONYSIUS.

It is well? Thou shalt see him no more. I will order thee to be put to death immediately.

PYTHIAS.

Pardon the feelings of a man who sympathizes with his dying friend. But remember it was Pythias who was devoted by thee to destruction. I come to submit. to it, that I may redeem my friend.. Do not refuse me this consolation in my last hour.

DIONYSIUS.

I cannot endure men, who despise death, and set my power at defiance.

DAMON

Thou canst not, then, endure virtue.

DIONYSIUS.

No I cannot endure that proud, disdainful virtue, which contemns life; which dreads no punishment; and which is insensible to the charms of riches and pleasure.

DAMON.

Thou seest, however, that it is a virtue, which is not insensible to the dictates of honour, justice, and friendship.

DIONYSIUS.

Guards, take Pythias to execution. We shall see whether Damon will continue to despise my authority.

DAMON.

Pythias, by returning to submit himself to thy pleasure, has merited his life, and deserved thy favour; but I have excited thy indignation, by resigning myself to thy power, in order to save him; be satisfied, then, with this sacrifice, and put me to death..

PYTHIAS.

Hold, Dionysius! remember, it was Pythias alone who offended thee : Damon could not

DIONYSIUS.

Alas! what do I see and hear! where am I ! How miserable; and how worthy to be so I have hitherto known nothing of true virtue. I have spent my life in darkness and error. All my power and honours are insufficient to produce love. I cannot boast of having acquired a single friend, in the course of a reign of thirty years. And yet these two persons, in a private condition, love one another tenderly, unreservedly confide in each other, are mutually happy, and ready to die for each other's preservation.

PYTHIAS.

How couldst thou, who hast never loved any person; expect to have friends? If thou hadst loved and respected men, thou wouldst have secured their love and respect. Thou hast feared mankind; and they fear. thee; they detest thee:

DIONYSIUS.

Damon, Pythias, condescend to admit me as a third friend, in a connexion so perfect. I give you your lives; and I will load you with riches.

DAMON.

We have no desire to be enriched by thee; and, in regard to thy friendship, we cannot accept or enjoy it, till thou become good and just. Without these qualities, thou canst be connected with none but trembling slaves, and base flatterers. To be loved and esteemed by men of free and generous minds, thou must be virtuous, affectionate, disinterested, beneficent; and

know how to live in a sort of equality with those who share and deserve thy friendship.

Fenelon, Archbishop of Cambray.

SECTION III.

LOCKE AND BAYLE:

Christianity defended against the cavils of scepticism.

BAYLE.

YES, we both were philosophers; but my philosophy was the deepest. You dogmatized; I doubted.

LOCKE.

Do you make doubting a proof of depth in philosophy? It may be a good beginning of it; but it is a bad end.

BAYLE.

No:-the more profound our researches are into the nature of things, the more uncertainty we shall find; and the most subtle minds see objections and difficulties in every system, which are overlooked or undiscovera ble by ordinary understandings.

LOCKE.

It would be better then to be no philosopher, and to continue in the vulgar herd of mankind, that one may have the convenience of thinking that one knows something. I find that the eyes which nature has given me, see many things very clearly, though some are out of their reach, or discerned but dimly. What opinion ought I to have of a physician, who should offer me an eye-water, the use of which would at first so sharpen my sight, as to carry it farther than ordinary vision; but would in the end put them out? Your philosophy is to the eyes of the mind, what I have supposed the doctor's nostrum to be to those of the body. It actual ly brought your own excellent understanding, which was by nature quick-sighted, and rendered more so by

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