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most of the inhabitants had fled to the mountains on the Pacha's arrival. The doors of some forsaken shops stood open; through these we perceived small rooms, seven or eight feet square, where the master, then a fugitive, eats, lies, and sleeps, on the single mat that composes his whole stock of furniture.

On the right of the Bazar, between the Temple and the foot of Mount Sion, we entered the Jews' quarter. Fortified by their indigence, these had withstood the attack of the Pacha. Here they appeared covered with rags, seated in the dust of Sion, seeking the vermin which devoured them, and keeping their eyes fixed on the Temple. The Drogman took me into a kind of school: I would have purchased the Hebrew Pentateuch, in which a rabbi was teaching a child to read; but he refused to dispose of the book. It has been observed that the foreign Jews, who fix their residence at Jerusalem, live but a short time. As to those of Palestine, they are so poor as to be obliged to send every year to raise contributions among their brethren in Egypt and Barbary.

From the Jews' quarter we repaired to Pilate's house, to view the mosque of the Temple through one of the windows; all Christians being prohibited, on pain of death, from entering the court that surrounds this mosque. The description of it I shall reserve till 1 come to treat of the buildings of Jerusalem. At some distance from the prætorium of Pilate, we found the pool of Bethesda, and Herod's palace. This last is a ruin, the foundations of which belong to antiqui

ty.

We went towards the gate of Sion, when Ali Aga invited me to mount with him upon the walls; the Drogman durst not venture to follow us. I found some old twen

ty-four pounders fixed upon carriages without wheels, and placed at the embrasures of a Gothic bastion.

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In this heap of rubbish, denominated a city, the people of the country have thought fit to give the appellation of streets to certain desert passages.

Jerusalem is comprehended in the pachalik of Damascus, for what reason I know not, unless it be a result of that destructive system which is naturally, and, as it were, instinctively, pursued by the Turks. Cut off from Damascus by mountains, and still more by the Arabs, who infest the deserts, Jerusalem cannot always prefer its complaints to the Pacha, when oppressed by its governors. It would be much more natural to make it dependent on the pachalik of Acre, which lies near it; the Franks and the Latin fathers might then place themselves under the protection of the consuls residing in the ports of Syria; and the Greeks and Turks would be able to make known their

grievances. But this is the very thing that their governors are desirous of preventing; they would have a mute slavery, and not insolent wretches who dare complain of the hand that oppresses them.

Jerusalem is therefore at the mer

cy of an almost independent governor; he may do with impunity all the mischief he pleases, if he be not afterwards called to account for it by the Pacha. It is well known that, in Turkey, every superior has a right to delegate his authority to an inferior; and this authority extends both to property and life. For a few purses a Janissary may become a petty Aga, and this Aga may, at his good pleasure, either take away your life or permit you to redeem it. Thus executioners are multiplied in every town of Judea. The only thing

ever heard in this country, the only justice ever thought of, is-Let him pay ten, twenty, thirty, purses-Give him five hundred strokes of the bastinado-Cut off his head. One act of injustice renders it necessary to commit a still greater. If one of these petty tyrants plunders a peasant, he is absolutely obliged to plunder his neighbour also; for, to escape the hypocritical integrity of the Pacha, he must procure by a second crime, sufficient to purchase impunity for the first.

It may perhaps be imagined that the Pacha, when he visits his government, corrects these evils and avenges the wrongs of the people. So far from this, however, the Pacha is himself the greatest scourge of the inhabitants of Jerusalem. His coming is dreaded like that of a hostile chief. The shops are shut up; the people conceal themselves in cellars; they feign to be at the point of death on their mats, or withdraw to the mountains.

The truth of these facts I am able to attest, since I happened to be at Jerusalem at the time of the Pacha's visit. Abdallah is sordidly avaricious, like almost all the Musselmans: in the capacity of commander of the caravan of Mecca, and under the pretext of raising money for the better protection of the pilgrims, he thinks he has a right to multiply his extortions; and he is always devising new ways of fleecing the people. One of the methods which he most frequently employs is, to fix a very low maximam for all kinds of provisions. The people are delighted, but the dealers shut up their shops. A scarcity commences; the Pacha enters into a secret negociation with the shop-keepers, and, for a certain number of purses, grants them permission to sell at any price they please. These men are of course desirous to recover the sums which they have given the Pacha: they

raise the price of necessàries to an extraordinary height, and the people, dying a second time for want, are obliged to part with their last rag to keep themselves from starving.

I have seen this same Abdallah practise a still more ingenious vexation. I have observed that he sent his cavalry to pillage the Arabian farmers beyond the Jordan. These poor people, who had paid the miri, and who knew that they were not at war, were surprised in the midst of their tents and of their flocks. They were robbed of two thousand two hundred sheep and goats, ninety-four calves, a thousand asses, and six mares of the purest blood; the camels alone escaped, having followed a shiek who called them at a distance. These faithful children of the desert carried their milk to their masters in the mountains, as if they had known that these masters were bereft of every other species of nourishment.

An European could scarcely guess what the Pacha'did with his booty. He put more than twice as high a price upon an animal as it was worth, rating each goat and sheep at twenty piastres, and each calf at eighty. The beasts, thus appraised, were sent to the butchers and different persons in Jerusalem, and to the chiefs of the neighbouring villages, who were obliged to take them and pay for them at the Pacha's price, upon pain of death. I must confess that, had I not been an-eye-witness of this double iniquity, I should have thought it absolutely incredible. As to the asses and horses, they became the property of the soldiers; for, according to a singular convention between these robbers, all the beasts with a cloven hoof taken in such expeditions belong to the Pacha, and all the other animals fall to the share of the troops.

*

Having

Having exhausted Jerusalem, the pacha departs; but, in order to save the pay of the city guards, and to strengthen the escort of the caravan of Mecca, he takes the soldiers along with him. The governor is left behind with about a dozen men, who are insufficient for the police of the city, much more for that of the adjacent country. The year before my visit, he was obliged to conceal himself in his house, to escape the pursuit of a band of robbers who entered Jerusalem, and were on the point of plundering the city.

No sooner is the pacha gone, than another evil, the consequence of his oppression, begins to be felt. Insurrections take place in the plundered villages; they attack each other, mutually intent on wreaking hereditary revenge. All communication is interrupted; agriculture perishes; and the peasant sallies forth at night to pillage his enemy's vine, and to cut down his olive-tree. The pacha returns the following year; he demands the same tribute from a country whose population is diminished. In order to raise it, he is obliged to redouble his oppressions and to exterminate whole tribes. The desert gradually extends; nothing is to be seen but here and there habitations in ruins, and near them cemeteries which are continually increasing each succeeding year witnesses the destruction of a house, the extinction of a family, and soon nothing is left but this cemetery to mark the spot where once stood a village.

Biographical Sketch of General Mack. (From "Biographie Moderne" ACK (the Baron de) an Austrian general, was born of a poor and mean family in the marFebruary 1812

MA

graviate of Anspach; hé nevertheless received a good education, began life as a soldier, became a quarter-master in a regiment of cavalry, and during the war, belonged to the staff of the army, a post in which he drew the attention of field-marshal Lascy, who made him a captain. The sentiments of esteem for his benefactor, which were fixed in the heart of Mack, displeased his successor Laudon, who one day said something very warm about the creatures of Lascy, keeping his eyes fixed on Mack. Mack returied, "I must inform you, sir, that I here serve neither M. de Lascy nor you, but his Imperial Majesty, to whom my life is consecrated." Two days after, Mack distinguished himself by the following action: M. de Laudon hesitated whether he should attack Lissa, ten miles from which town his camp was posted, believing it to be defended by 30,000 men. Mack, who wished to make him determine on the assault, left him at nine o'clock in the evening, crossed the Danube with one hussar, made his way into a suburb of Lissa, took a Turkish officer prisoner, and the next morning, at seven o'clock, presented him to the general, who learnt from him that the garrison consisted of only 6000 men. The marshal then addressed him in flattering terms, made him his aid-de-camp, and requested that he would never leave him. Laudon before his death presented his young favourite to the einperor, saying to him, "I leave you a Laudon who will serve you better than have done: I mean major Mack." Thus, having obtained some degree of celebrity, he served in 1793 under M. de Cobourg as quarter-master-general, and in this capacity directed the early operations of the campaign, the passage of the Roêr, the deliverance of Maestricht, and the bat tles

tles of Nerwinde. He had also a great share in the negociations then carried on with Dumouriez, from which the Austrian leaders derived so little benefit. He was afterwards wounded in the attack on the camp at Famars, and unable to follow up his plans, was recalled to Vienna, and superseded by prince Hohenlohe, whom he afterwards again joined in the Low Countries, when he was appointed majorgeneral and quarter-master-general of the Flemish army. In the preceeding February, 1794, the emperor had dispatched him to London, that he might adjust with the British cabinet the plans of the campaign which was just going to open. Mack had prepared a general attack to crush Pichegru, and was moving all his forces in a space of above twenty leagues; but so vast an operation was not in every part well concerted: the English and Hanoverians were defeated on the 18th of May, at Hondscoote, and the Austrian army, after a fruitless contest, withdrew to Tournay. On the 22d Pichegru, in his turn, attacked the allied forces, to compel them to cross the Scheldt again; but the battle, after continuing from six in the morning till ten in the evening, at last remained doubtful. The emperor shortly after resolved on returning to Vienna, and leaving the command of the army to the prince of Cobourg, who had little confidence in Mack, but who highly esteemed general Fischer, one of his enemies. Mack, finding that after the emperor's departure he should have no influence, asked and obtained permission to return to Vienna. He then passed several years in Bohemia; but when the peace of Campo Formio was signed, he was appointed lieutenant-general, and commissioned to organize the army of Italy anew. A war having in 1798 broke out between

Naples and the French republic he went to take the command of the Neapolitan forces, and thus in some sort became master of the destiny of the state; but his talents were very unequal to so important a part, and though he at first obtained some advantages over scattered and small parties, he was afterwards completely defeated, and his army totally routed by general Championnet. Mack was then guilty of capital errors; for,. quite beside himself, he wished to enter into a negociation with the hostile generals, and suspicions being thus, exeited, a cry of treachery was spread. part of his troops, and above all, the people of Naples rose against him, and he found there was no other way to escape their fury, than to throw himself, with his staff, into the arms of the French, who, in spite of his remonstrances, treated him as a prisoner of war. On this occasion, it must be allowed, he behaved in a pusillanimous manner; for, though it has long been said, that the valour in the field (which cannot be denied him,) does not always supply the fortitude and presence of mind which, are requisite to incite, or repress a multitude, yet he to whom the safety of a nation is entrusted, should know how to succeed, or die in the attempt. Innumerable epigrams and songs against him were published at the time of of his flight and captivity, and the conduct of M. de Damas, a foreigner also, served to shew what he might have done had he, like that gallant Frenchman, known how to gain the confidence of his troops, and inspire them with a like military enthusiasm. The court of Vienna having refused an exchange, he was sent to France, and kept there some time on his parole, but at last secretly escaped with a courtezan, in April, 1800; and the French government,

the end of February, 1806, judgment had not yet been passed on him.

vernment, as if wishing to set in a stronger light the shame of this infraction of laws, ever sacred to a military man, immediately restored all the officers of his staff to liberty, and desired them to convey back to their general his servants, his effects, and his horses. In 1804 he was nominated commander in chief of all the forces stationed in the

Tyrol, in Dalmatia, and in Italy; when he presented a new plan of discipline for the Austrian troops, which the archduke Charles adopted. In the month of September he obtained the command of the Bavarian army, but on the approach of the French troops he withdrew beyond the Danube, and shut himself up in the city of Ulm, with a numerous force. Then the empetor Napoleon crossed the river, and after making a shew of a design to penetrate into Bavaria, he on a sudden returned to Ulm, cut off the left wing of the Austrian army, seized Memmingen, which general Spangen surrendered without resistance, and came with a superior force to give battle to General Mack, who continued shut up in Ulm, while the archduke Ferdinand, after having vainly endeavoured to bring him to act courageously, was retreating into Bohemia, through Franconia, with a considerable body of cavalry. Mack then, closely pressed by the French army, after two or three attacks on the advanced guard, accepted the most ignominious capitulation recorded in military annals. His troops, to the number of 40,000 men, were made prisoners, and he and his staff alone had permission to retire on their parole to Austria; but no sooner was he arrived, than he was seized and confined in the fortress of Therisenstadt, from which he was removed only to appear before a court-martial.

At

Biographical Sketch of the

Count d'Artois,

(From the same.)

HARLES PHILIP d'Ar

tois), second brother of Louis XVI., born at Versailles the 9th of October 1757, married the 16th of November 1773, to Maria Theresa of Savoy, by whom he had two sons. This prince was, in his youth, devoted to every kind of pleasure, renowned for his amiable qualities, his gallantries, and his profusion, and was considered a patron of letters; he was, in particular, very kind to the Abbe Delille, who has celebrated him in various passages of his poems. At the beginning of the revolution, he declared against its principles, and was one of the most zealous defenders of the royal prerogatives. At the time of the assembly of notables, he declared in favour of M. de Calonne; and when the parliament was banished for having refused to register the edict concerning stamps and the land-tax, he, and Monsieur, his brother, were charged with having it registered. When he had reached the barrier of La Conference, the public discontent manifested itself in a manner so alarming for his person, that his guards made a movement as if to put themselves on the defensive. When he quitted the court of aids, his train was again assailed by new clamours. A line of troops, disposed on the Pont Neuf, closed the passage to the multitude, and facilitated the continuation of his way. The Count d'Artois was among the number of the princes of the blood who presented a memorial to the

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