Scots Magazine,




Description of Threave Castle, in Galloway, THREAVE, or Thrieve Castle, Granger of Threave; for which apT

is situated on an island (a- pointment he paid L.100 per anbout sixteen acres in extent), for- num. In 1524, it was granted to med by the river Dee, in the shire Robert Lord Maxwell and heirs, of Wigton. It is a place highly dis- for the period of nineteen years. tinguished in the annals of that part This family, who afterwards be: of Scotland. Tradition reports it came Earls of Nithsdale, held it to have been the residence of the for more than two hundred years. ancient lords, or petty kings in In the time of Charles I. the Earl of Galloway. Of the castle however, Nithsdale maintained this castle and in which those chieftians resided, that of Caerlaverock, very gallantall traces are now obliterated. Thé ly, against the forces of the Covenpresent edifice is supposed to have anters; nor did he surrender, till been built by one of the family of authorized to do so, by a letter Douglas. The origin of the name from the King himself

, dated 15th has been variously reported. We Septemher 1640. can attach no credit to one account In 1747, the castle of Threave, mentioned by Mr Grose, that along with the other heritable jurisThrieve was a contraction of The dictions, was united to the crown. Rive; which name was given to a It has since become the property of chieftian, on account of his riving, the Laird of Kelton. or plandering the whole neighbour The remains of the castle now hood. Others supposed the name consist of a large square tower, to have been merely a contraction built of small slate- like stone, of the “ castle of the Reeves.” and surrounded at a little distance

In 1455, this castle became the by an envelope, with four round property of the Scottish crown. In towers, the curtains of which are 1502 Sir John Dundas of Moch- pierced for guns. There are also rum received the office of keeper, the remains of a gate, which had with 25 merks worth of land, called been very strong.


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Varieties, Literary and Miscella Thoughts on the Improvement of the

Police of Edinburgh.

WHERE is unfortunately no dis

at T is not generally known that the Beggar's Opera was writ- present moment, so urgent an in

terest, as that which relates to the ten in Edinburgh. Mr Gay then lived in a small house in the Can- preservation of public order in this ongate which still exists ; it is si- months, a most disastrous change

Within the last two

great city. tuated almost opposite the Gate of has taken place. That peaceable Queensberry House, and is at pre- and virtuous department, which sent (1812) occupied by a shoe- honourably characterized the most maker of the name of Wm. Nicholson, and may be easily recogni

numerous part of the Scottish pozed by two small projecting roofs pulation, has been entirely broken covered with tiles.

up; and a system of robbery and atrocity has been organized, which places the life of



very moment in danger. Any meaThe greatest artists, like the great sure which might correct this deest authors, have not been exempt generacy, and restore national from the meanest jealousy.

manners to their original purity, · Michael Angelo procured the would certainly be deserving of the banishment of Leonardo da Vinci most serious consideration, But from Florence. He endeavoured this is an object which cannot be first to make Raphael pass for a accomplished at once, and the plagiary, and then to raise up a means of attaining . which, depend rival to him in Bastian del Piombo. upon numerous and complicated

When Dominichino had finished circumstances. The immediate and his celebrated picture of St Jerome, urgent consideration is, how the Lanfrank hastily got an engraving person and property of the citizens made at Bologna, of the same subject may be secured from those attacks, painted by Ludovico Carracci. 'He to which they are incessantly liable. then caused this print to be circu. This has turned men's attention to lated at Rome, and employed per- the present very defective state of sons to point out certain resemblan- the system of Edinburgh police. ces to that of Dominichino, which Its imperfections indeed have, since might make the latter pass for a

its first institution, been very geneplagiary,

rally acknowledged; but recent eThe fine pictures, which La vents render it impossible longer to Sueur had painted for the cloister overlook them. Some of the causės of the Chartreux, were spoiled by, of this insufficiency seem to be pretartists jealous of his reputation. ty generally observed. The superinThey cut off with a knife the finest tendant, instead of being a judge, heads, the most expressive fea- and (ananomaly in our constitution) tures. It evidently appears that this a judge without appeal, ought to be instrument was employed with art, an executive officer charged with and by hands accustomed to draw- maintaining the peace of the city, ing. Just and correct expressions are and detecting offenders. He ouglst rendered ridiculous, by the skilful to have the choice of his inferior movement of the knife.

agents, and to be made responsible


His ap

for their properly discharging their highly so) would place himself in duty. Efficient and active men a situation where his continuance would then probably be chosen ; would be dependant on the caprice nor would a place in the police be of a single individual.

considered as a mode of providing pointment and removal would, we . for decayed servants, or persons un- imagine, be most properly placed

fit for any other occupation. But in the hands of the Magistrates, I am particularly anxious to recal who have naturally the immediate the attention of the public to what superintendance over the peace of was formerly stated through the the city. Doubtless, he ought to medium of your miscellany. No be legally removeable at pleasure ; way, it is probable, can be found in but still with the understanding, as which the city will be thoroughly is usual in such cases, that providguarded, unless by a stationary po- ed he does his duty, and provés lice. Men ought to be placed in himself fit for his office, he shall resentry, at moderate distances, and tain it during life.

M. communicating with each other by appointed signals. By this arrangement, whenever a disturbance aris Monthly Memoranda in Natural es, at any one point, the alarm is

History, immediately given, and a strength sufficient to crush it may be speedily collected. I am happy to ob- February. THE first days of this

month were very serve that this plan has been mild and genial. The yellow flowbrought forward in the resolution ers of the Winter Aconite immediof the society of Advocates, and I ately peeped above ground; and am led to hope, that the influence they were quickly followed by the of so respectable a body, may lead Snowdrop. "The Missel-thrush was to its adoption. There are only one heard to sing. or two details in which I cannot help 8. In a garden at Canon. differing somewhat from the senti- mills, near Edinburgh, a common ments of that learned body. They Jargonelle, (cuisse madaine), on a propose that a system of patrolé wall with a s. E. aspect, began to should still be continued along with expand its blossoms. the stationary police. I cannot help 12. The Black Cock, (Tetrao thinking, that the one supersedes tetrix) has, during the past winter, the necessity of the other. In at- been occasionally seen in this neightempting thus to support two esta- bourhood. One was shot some blishments, we must either render weeks ago at Meadowbank; anoboth inefficient, or incur an expence ther at Barnbougle; and a third was altogether enormous. The number observed a few days ago on Corstsor-of men, it must be recollected, that phine Hill. I understand that a would be required to guard the rare species of Sandpiper (Tringa city in the manner I have been pro- nigricans, Lin. Tr.) has recently posing, would be very considerable. been shot on the beach at PortoStill less can I approve the propo- bello. sal that the superintendant should Botanic Garden. This garden be appointed by, and removeable at still remains in the same forlorn the pleasure of the sheriff of the state, which we have noticed and county. No respectable man (and depiored at different times during he who holds this office, should be the last three years. With an emi


nent Professor of Botany, and a su- he is now privately exhibiting here. perintendant or head gardener every Mr Wilson, we understand, inway qualified for his office, it seems tends to have engraved under his to be a national disgrace, to suffer eye, two prints from his principal the finest plants in the collection to landscapes, which contain views of pine for want of room, or to rot Tivoli and of Rome. They are to owing to a deficiency of shelter, - be subscribed for at a guinea each, bý withholding a small grant of the We consider him as entitled to evepublic money, sufficient to renew or ry species of encouragement from to raise the roofs of the hot-houses. the lovers of the arts. The noble Dragon-blood tree (Dra We expect to be able, in our cæna draco), formerly mentioned, next, to present our readers with has for these two last years been some observations on the principal cecasionally pushing its strong pieces contained in this interesting leaves through the panes of glass ; exhibition. and if the roof be not speedily rais Doctor Hutton, in reply to an ed, the plant, by far the grandest observation of Dr Davy, has lateof the kind within his Majesty's ly published the following acBritish dominions, must be inevit- count of the curious experiments ably lost! A large and splendid made in 1774, at Schehallien, specimen of the Date Palm, (Phoe-“ About the year 1774, says he, hix dactylifera), has, at this mo " there was much conversation ment, its elegantly pinnated fronds among some of the most scientific also bent back by the glass of the members of the Royal Society, roof. We shall only remark, that about the universal attraction of all It is impossible to believe that the matter, and in devising some gentrue state of this Royal Garden can eral and familiar proofs of it. It be known to the Prince Regent or was then concluded that it would his advisers.

be a very decisive and, indeed, • Canoňmills, ?

N. palpable proof, if it could be exFeb. 27, 1812.

perimentally shown that any hill

attracted a plummet, drawing it Memoirs of the Progress of Mam. cular direction towards itselt.-Affactures, Chemistry, Science, and the Fine Arts.

ter several reports of the Royal

Society, Mr Smeaton announced HAT AVING always taken an in- that he had discovered the moun

terest in the progress of the tain Schehallien, one of the GramFine Arts in Scotland, we hail pian hills in the north of Scotland, with pleasure the appearance of possessing the desired properties in a master, who must undoubtedly a very eminent degree ; being rank in the first class of her land a very lofty and narrow ridge, scape painters. Mr Wilson,

a very steep, extending a great native of this city, has resided for length east and west, and very some years in Italy, where he assi- narrow from north to south. This duously availed himself of the am- hill was in consequence deemed ple means of improvement afforded sufficiently convenient for making by that country, and the classic the experiment; and a person, environs of Rome. He has execu- who had been an assistant to Dr ted several very finished representa. Maskelyne, at the Royal Observations of the scenery in the neigh- tory, was engaged by the society, tourhood, which, along with others, and sent down to Scotland to take




the necessary measures about the culations was published in the Phio · hill, to ascertain its shape and losophical Transactions for the year magnitude by horizontal measure 1778, and in volume xiv. of my Aments, and by vertical seetions in a bridgment of these transactions ; great many directions and situa- and, though in a very condensed tions; and, lastly, by placing a pro- form, occupied no less than a hunper instrument and plumet against dred quarto pages in that work, the middle of the sides of the hill, containing only the results of ntuto observe by zenith distances, the ny thousands of intricate calculadeviation of the plumb-line towards tions. The conclusion from all the hill. Before the survey and which was, that the mean density observations were quite completed, of the whole mass of the earth is at the request of the society, Dr nearly double that of the inounMaskelyne himself went down to tain, being to the former in the prsScotland, to see how the business portion of 9 to 5; whence it appears was carried on; and brought back that the density of the earth is about the account of the survey, with the five times that of the writer." report that, having tried the plumet Dr. Reuben Mussey, of Mason the opposite sides of the hill, sachussetts, lately published, Exeach side attracted it between 5 periments and Observations and 6 seconds from the perpendicu- Cutaneous Absorption. These exlar, and in fact, that the sum of the periments show how the system two opposite attractions was just may be supported in cases of emerequal to 11 6-16th seconds. —Thus, geney, without the reception of then, the original question was sa- food by the stomach. They extisfactorily answered in the affirma- plain how extreme thirst may be five, viz. that the hill, a mass of allayed by sailors in distress, by dense rocks, did sensibly attract the the immersion of their bodies in plummet, and draw it aside from salt water; as the salt will not perthe perpendicular direction of the colate through the pores of the earth's gravitation, and tbat by a skin to increase thirst, though the certain quantity. The next consi- water will be absorbed by the skin, deration was, whether and how and refresh, if not nourish thein. theseobservations and measurements In his first experiment he remaincould be employed, in comparison ed immersed " in a pretty strong with the magnitude and effects of watery infusion of the rubia tincthe whole earth, to determine torum, two hours and forty five its mean destiny, in comparison minutes.” The urine he voided with that of the mountain. - The three hours after he left the bath, magnitude and novelty of these nice “was slightly tinged with red, and calculations, the requisite portion treated with a solution of the comof science and ingenuity for making mon sulphat of iron, it gave a tinge them with effect, were such as ap- of a purplish brown." In the sepalled every mind, and every one cond' experiment, “ I continued”. shrunk from the task; when at the says he, “ three hours in the midrequest of the president and coun- der bath. The portion discharged cil of the society, I undertook the five hours after leaving the bath performance; and, after incessant was a little deeper-coloured than ·labour during the course of a year, common Sherry, or Sicily wine.

produced the result of the whole, Treated with the sulphat of iron, to the entire satisfaction of all the a strong purplish brown precipitate society. The account of three cal. was produced.” In the several


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