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No. 57. : ! SEPTEMBER 1st, 1880.
: ' "PRICE TW OPENCE. }

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Pupil Teacher

1 MONTHLY EDUCATIONAL JOURNAL FOR PUPIL

TEACHERS, & ASSISTANT MASTERS,

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Original Articles on Educational Topics ; Parliamentary, Training Col.

leges, and Board School News affecting Pupil Teachers; Reports of 9 Science Lectures; Reviews of Books ; Scraps and Items of useful

information on Literature, Education, Science and Art; Questions set

in Papil Teachers' Government Examinations ; Questions proposed and O

answered by Pupil Teachers ; Popular Science Papers, &c. rior

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Price 22., by post 2 d., or ls. 3d, for six months; 23. 60. a year,

.. " OY ADVANCE, FROM ! ,3. venni MAJOR, B.A., B.Sc., Editor, Sherwood House, LEICESTER.

Post Omee Orders payable to Å. MAJOR, Leicester, not Nottingham.
LONDON AGENTS : MOTFATT, PAIGE & Co., 28, WARWICK LANE. +
. .

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LATITULIS MONAQ Die

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BOOKS SUITABLE FOR PUPIL TEACHERS

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Manuscript Answers to Government Pupil Teachers' monthly Examinations, s. d. each month

06
Candidate's Year Book
Key to ditto
Candidate's Questions and Answers ..
Candidate's Questions only ...
Complete Geography, 6d. ; Complete Grammar, 6d. ; Complete History

FIRST YEAR.
Pupil Teachers' Year Book, I. (with all the subjects of instruction)
Key to ditto (worked examples in Arithmetic) ...
Notes of Lessons ...
for Infant Schools ...

... 26 Graduated Exercises in Arithmetic ...

(for all years) Major's Complete Arithmetic

3

1 0 Mental Arithmetic... 4. Music Manual Pupil Teacher's Geography of British Isles Pupil Teacher's Government Questions and Answers. I. Pupil Teacher's Questions only Scripture Manuals for Pupil Teachers, for all years, Old Test. 27-5T

» New 21_(complete

bgery Praver Book 2 in 1 vol. O Pupil Teacher's Notes of Lessons-Old Test. ... (for all years) ... 2

TITUT New ... of Oun Di sint 2 Little Housewife (Domestio Economy) Crown Drawing Books, complete in six books, (Elementary Freehand ... 10

SECOND YEAR. 19 oroitarra Pupil Teacher's Year Book, 11. (with all the subjects of instruction) lian 2 Key to ditto 1 L

TOODERB... 10 Poetry for Repetition

... (for all years

06
Pupil Teacher's Geography of Europe
Pupil Teacher's Questions and Answers, II. ...
Pupil Teacher's Questions only, II. ...

HTVOM VITRIRD YEAR, HIIUI
Pupil Teacher's Year Book, III. ...
Key to ditto
Pupil Teacher's Geography of Colonies
Pupil Teacher's Questions and Answers, III. ...
Pupil Teacher's Questions only, III. H T .
FOURTH YEAR.

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Pupil Teacher's Year Book, IV..
Key to ditto

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Pupil Teacher's Geography of Asia and Africa
Pupil Teacher's Questions and Answers, IV. ...
Pupil Teacher's Questions only, IV.
Middle-class Reader, V., 1/6; (for Elocution) VI.

FIFTH YEAR.
Pupil Teacher's Year Book, V.
Pupil Teacher's Geography of America and Oceans
Pupil Teacher's Questions and Answers, V.

o Answers v

...

110 teog d5 Papil Teacher's Questions only, V.2 , Guide and Text Book to Scholarship and Certificate Examinations Latin, 1/2 French, 6d.; P. Geography, 6d. 30 Algebra2...A.a. OTAM 0 8 Government Science Questions and Answers, Elementary and Advanced

(all subjects) Hotegia.I OLAY U. ot olduya...DO DO ... 06 The Pupil Teacher, a monthly magazine, TATTO Annual subscription 2 16 Any of above post free for published price in stamps from H. MAJOR, B.A. B.Sc.,

Sherwood House, Leicester ; London—SIMPKIN & MARSHALL.

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SPECIAL PUBLICATIONS : PUPIL TEACHERS, STUDENTS, & TEACHERS.

FOR

1:

Moffatt's Pupil Teacher's Course --Candidates, 28. 6d.; Year I., 2s.6d.;

Year IL , 3s. Years III. and IV., shortly. '.' Editors have been selected for writing these books who have special qualifi. cations for the task.

These books contain the whole course of instruction for Pupil Teachers. They are carefully and fully written. Examination Papers in each subject are set, and practical hints to Papil Teachers are given.

* We can give very high praise to this compilation. Books of this kind are not generally very well done, but the present work is excellently drawn up. Pupil Teacher

Teachers will not need other books."--The National Schoolmaster.

i 31' Moffatt's Reprint of Pupil Teachers' Questions set by the Education

Department in 1874, 1875, 1876, 1877, 1879, with Answers to Arithmetic and

Algebra. Price 18. 6d. for each year. . . *. These are å reprint of the official questions given by H.M. Inspectors at the Monthly Examinations of Pupil Teachers.

" It is just the sort of book a teacher finds useful for preparing for examination, Save in one or two minor particulars, the questions are as applicable to Scotland as to England.”—The Educational News. Moffatt's Answers to Scholarship Questions, 1878 and 1879. Price 28.;

each. These books contain full and complete Answers to all the Scholarship Questions, with particulars of Training Colleges, and instructions and hints

for Candidates. The Schoolmaster says—"To those looking forward for the scholarship examinations this will friend in need." Queen's Scholarship Questions, for 1870-1-2-3. Price 1s. . Queen's Scholarship Questions, for 1874–5–6–7. Price 18. Queen's Scholarship Questions, July, 1878. Price 6d. Queen's Scholarship Questions, July, 1879. Price 6d.

With Answers to Arithmetic, Algebra, and Menguration. «No better exercise for those preparing for a Scholarship will be found than in answering these questions" Moffatt's Outlines of Grammar and Analysis. Price 9d. Moffatt's Outlines of Geography. Price 1s. Moffatt's Outlines of English History. Price 1s. '

. These books will be found useful for Pupil Teachers, Students in Training, and Candidates for the various public examinations. How to Teach Arithmetic. Illustrated in a series of Notes of Lessons.

25. 6d. By T. J. Livesey, author of “Scholarship Answers." This book

takes up seriatim very fully every rule of Arithmetic. The Schoolmaster says "The work will be specially useful to Pupil Teachers and students in training." Moffatt's How to Teach Reading, Illustrated with Notes of Lessons.

18. 6d. This book takes up very carefully every system of teaching reading,

and enters fully into the whole of the subject. "This is a very interesting book, and is evidently the production of a master-hand.”—The Irish Teachers' Journal.

* We confidently say it is the best book on the subject we have met."--The Irish Educational Journal.

MOFFATT & PAIGE, Warwick Lane, Paternoster Row, LONDON

THE CROWN DRAWING BOOKS,

In Six Books, Carefully Graduated.

2d. each ; 188. per gross (nett price).
BOOK I. Straight Lines, and objects made of these, ,

II. Curved
II. Simple Freehand...
V. More Difficult Freehand.
V. Geometrical Drawings.;',

VI. Still more difficult Freehand.

,, VII. * Nos. I. II. and III. are designed to lead up to Freehand, and to meet the want of preparatory teaching in this subject. Cheapness has been rigidly studied, and twenty-four pages (not sixteen as is usual) have been given to each book. The copies are in the book, which is thus both & Drawing Book supplying copy, and book for copying from model. ' T

The recent outbreak of another Afghan War once more calls attention

to Afghanistan. This country is fully described in the Editor's AFGHANISTAN; single copies 1 d. post-free, or ls. per dozen,

for P.T's. and classes taking the Geography of Asia. CYPRUS: Halfpenny Geography of. For Schools; with Map.

60. PER DOZEN, post-free. Single Copies, 1d. post-free. H. MAJOR Leicester; SCHOLASTIC TRADING COS.; and SIMPKIN & MARSHALL.

Geographical Distribution of Animal Life. In speaking of the geographical distribution of animal life, I shall keep strictly to the class known as 'mammalia, or animals that bring forth their young alive, and suckle them with their own milk. I may state that animals living in the same parallels of latitude, are generally of the same orders and families. I will illustrate my meaning by taking the Scottish red deer for example. This animal is found thronghout Europe and Asia north of 50 degrees north latitude, but it does not follow that the red deer will be met with in the same parallels of North America, where it is represented by the wapiti. If we take Central and Northern Europe as far as the Arctic circle, we find that the typical beasts of these regions are the brown bear; two species of the genus felis, namely, the lynx and wild cat; the wolf, fox, glutton, badger, sable, polecat, ormine, elk, reindeer, and auroch, or European bison. All these animals are clothed with a thick warm coat, fitting them to bear the cold of a sub-Arctic climate. Now, in the adjoining parallel regions of Asia, where we have a geographical connexion, most of these beasts are found with slight variations, till you reach the confines of Northern China, where other forms take the place of these, and again in Southern Europe. The bears, wolves, mustelidæ, elk, and reindeer disappear, and other animals akin to those of North Africa begin to put in an appearance, such as the wild boar, southern lynx, gennet cat, porcupine, and other sub-tropical mamimalia. On crossing over to the southern shores of the Mediterranean Sea, these south European beasts are still met with, along with jackals, striped byonas, ichneumons, Barbary deer, and sometimes the lion and panther. It will be this seen that many animals of North Africa are identical with those of Southern Europe. But the great barrier to mammalian migration that divided the fauna of Southern Europe and North Africa from the Ethiopian region was the great Desert of Sahara, nearly 3,000 miles in length, and 1,000 miles in breadth. On going south of the Sahara yon find quite a change in the fauna of the country. No doubt in the far distant past this sandy desert was an immense inland sea, for, excepting the lion, panther, and a few others, most of the numerous forms of animal life that lurk in the immense primeval forests, or stalk through the almost endless plains of Central and South Africa differ from those of the other zoological regions. In this great zoological division of the earth are some of the most gigantic, ancouth, and wild forms of animal life that are to be met with on the face of the globe. It is in the boundless equatorial forests of Central Africa that the great anthropoid ape, the gorilla, has his home. Other great man-like apes, such as the chimpanzee, the cola camba, and the soka, roam through these great forest belts. The numerous family of dog-headed baboons, as the mandrill, hanmadryad, chacma, ursine baboons, and others have their habitat here, besides several species of the lower monkeys. This great natural history province is the home of the elephant, the rhinoceros, the hippopotamus, the buffalo, and the giraffe. In this land the lion reigns supreme over the lower animals, and the panther and the leopard lurk in the forest. Two species of hyena are spread over the whole of this region. Three species of zebra inhabit the plains and mountains, namely, the common zebra, or wild pard, Burchel's zebra, and the quagga. These beautifully marked beasts represent the onagar, or wild ass of the deserts of Asia, and the wild ass of north-eastern Africa. Throughout the whole of the north temperate regions of Europe, Asia, and America, the deer family are fairly plentiful; but in Africa, south of the Sahara, the true deer are unknown. Here the large family of antelopes take their place. There are now known to be more than sixty different species of those hollow-horned ruminants, from the graceful gazelle to the massive eland, in Africa alone. Here the placke vark and red river bog represent the wild boars of Europe, North Africa, and India. If we pass from Europe across the Atlantic to North America, we do not find any of the Old World mammals. Instead of the brown bears, we here have the black and grizzly bears. The Canadian and bay lynx take the place of those of Europe, and the wapiti, moose, and bison here represent the red deer, elk, and auroch of Europe, to which they are closely allied. It is very likely that, during the post-glacial epoch, Europe was joined to America by the Faroe Isles, Iceland, and Greenland, and that Eastern Asia was also joined to the new world at Behring Straits; but afterwards some great depression of the land took place, separating North America from Europe and Asia; and animals, originally of the same species, but now separated by a great ocean barrier, in the course of many generations wunld suit themselves to their altered conditions and surroundings, and would form permanent varieties or new species. This is no fanciful idea-you may see it in our domestic animals. For example, take the smooth-haired greyhounds and transport them to the north of Scotland,

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