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coke manufactured off-band. If, moreover, one of the children be made to assist in this and similar experiments, the feelings of novelty, surprise, and wonder will be intensified, and in addition the sense of power will be excited.
Nor will it relax the bonds of discipline if the innate love of liberty from previous constraint be allowed periodical indulgence, as at playtime, in the playground especially, if the teacher, as he should, join in the sports of the child. The writer has often indulged with children in the game of marbles in the playground, without any loss of authority; a good disciplinarian can drop the playfellow in an instant, and resume the master. If, moreover, the teacher can exhibit greater skill than the child in mere sports and pastimes, he possesses in this a means of actually increasing his authority in actual school-keeping. He should, of course, not allow himself to be put into ludicrous or degraded situations, where loss of respect would accrue; as in playing leap-frog, acting as blind-man in blind-man's buff, &c. Zeal here, as elsewhere, wants tempering with discretior.
(6) Fear. This is also a powerful means of exciting attention, but should never degenerate into horror, which has disgust in it; or be intensified into terror, which reacts too powerfully on the vital processes of the subject, and may do irreparable harm. Thus in describing a battle in giving a lesson in history, any repetition of the horrors of the battle-field should be carefully omitted; while, of course, any threats of bogies, ghosts, or other spiritual and imaginary terrors, should be scrupulously avoided. Even placing children in solitary confinement in the dark is unjustifiable; while cutting a child off from companionship, by making him stand with his face against the wall, or on the form with his eyes closed, or forbidding speech for a time, we hold to be means lawfully at the disposal of the teacher.
(C) The emotions of love, admiration, esteem of others, and self esteem, are also instruments of legitimate use. But these feelings should be called forth by worthy objects, and wherever possible means should be afforded for their manifestation in expression on the worthy object. This should be dune that the indulgence of the emotion may not sink into mere weak sentiment, but become by association of idea developed into the habits of active benevolence. For this purpose occasional collections for charitable parposes, or distressed objects, and for the promotion of useful public purposes, such as school libraries, may be usefully encouraged by the teacber.
(d) Anger is another emotion of the mind. But this should never be exhibited by teacher or encouraged in the scholar, except within the narrow limits of just indignation against unrighteous deeds, while even this should always have the corrective of pity for the offender, and the expression of a hope of his amendment.
(e) The Moral Sense. So far as children are concerned it will not perbaps be necessary for the teacber to distress bimself by enquiry of too minute and searching a cbaracter into the standard of right and wrong. He may satisfy himself with the divine command, “Do to others as you would that they should do to you," or "Act in such a way that your conduct might be a law to all” (Kant). We believe that no problem will ever arise in school-keeping that cannot be solved by the foregoing standard. The end is the welfare of the individual dealt with first, and of the school next, and of society at large. The means are Rewards and Punishments. [See “Rewards and Punishments."]
VOLITION OR WILL. WILL OR VOLITION.—This is the power of the child, or man, to act in accordance with its feelings or emotions. It thus includes all the functions of the body carried on by the brain and “voluntary " nerves; but excludes the mere "organic" functions of circulation, respiration, and secretion (including digestion) carried out by means of the "involuntary” nervous system, over which the child has directly no control.
It is interesting to note that the will in a child has to be trained just as much as the intellect—in other words, that the self-contained power of willing to do, or to leave a thing undone, enjoyed by an educated man, is as much an acquirement as his capability to solve problems in mathematical or social science. It is true that the child possesses from the first a spontaneity or tendency to muscular movement, but this is at first mere aimless, haphazard, muscular movement; and it is only after repeated experiences of certain movements accomplishing certain ends, that the ends are aimed at. A mere infant, for instance, would not be able to direct its muscular energies to remove any object of irritation from any part of its body; but after accidental movements several times repeated have produced repeated pleasure or pain, the child associates pleasure and pain in its mind with these movements, and voluntarily produces them. And this is the justification of rewards and punishments in school life-the aim of the teacher being to associate pleasure with what he terms good actions, and pain with what he terms bad ones; the standard of right and wrong existing in the mind of the teacher first, and being insensibly adopted through these means by the child. Thus, long before the child can be reasoned with as to the evil effects on others of telling lies, saying bad words, stealing, &c., he is made to perceive by punishment that these actions bring pain of mind or body to himself. And to the degraded orders of society this is the only pain that is felt, even in adult life.
This is evidently an important consideration for the teacher; and perhaps, after all, there is no greater distinction between the really educated and the uneducated man, than the possession of the control of the will over action in the one case, and its absence in the other. This is the fullest meaning of discipline, and marks the distinction between the action of a mob and that of a troop of soldiers, sailors, or police; as well as of the “coolness” of a well-balanced individual mind in positions of suspense or peril, as contrasted with the headlong precipitation of one who has “lost his head." In a good school the sudden advent of an inspector, or other visitor, has little power of unfixing the attention of the children; in a bad one the reverse is at once apparent. Similarly, no unexpected re-disposition of the ordinary school arrangements and positions of classes by an inspector, to test the ability of a teacher, will throw a good one off his balance; while a bad one wil] loudly complain of circumstances over which he should have had perfect control. Orderliness on parade, which melts away on the field of battle is the sign of a martinet rather than of a general in real command.
Of course it will be understood that the child is not generally at any given time acting with only one part of its tripartite nature at work; but that generally intellect, emotion, and will are acting and reacting upon each other.
(To be continued.)
Reviews. “MIDLAND READERS : New CODE GEOGRAPHY, &c., by H. MAJOR, B.A.,
B.Sc., Inspector of Board Schools, Leicester,
We have been favoured with some numbers of the Midland Readers, edited by Mr. Major, and intended to meet the requirements of the Revised Code, in Reading, Spelling, and Dictation. The distinctive features of these books are:
I. They combine a Reading and Home Lesson Book.
III. The difficult words are printed in bold clarendon type, so as to attract the eye of the child.
IV. They are readable, amusing, lively, and instructive ; well bound, clearly printed, and graduated.
Book I. consists of sixty-four pages of easy, interesting lessons, skilfully graduated. The difficult words occurring in each lesson are given at the head, besides being printed in bold type in the body of the text; and an additioual list of words is appended at the end. The object of this arrangement is, we apprehend, to impress children with the importance of learning to spell properly at the very beginning of their school career, and there is no doubt that proper attention, on the part of pupils and children using these bouks, to the spelling exercises, must insure accuracy and facility in this important branch. The lessons are not made up of dry, diconnected sentences. Each lesson contains a narrative, anecdote, or piece of instruction, in easy familiar language, well adapted to excite the interest of the child in the subject by means of his understanding. The book is neatly illustrated; a home exercise is prescribed at the end of each lesson, and a model line of script, for imitation by the pupils, is also given. Book II. consists of eighty pages, and is got up in the same style, and possesses the same recommendations as, Book I.
Mr. Major is entitled to great praise for the character of the selections in Book III. This number is a considerable advance on Book II., and makes greater demands on the intelligence of the pupil. It contains about one hundred pages. The difficult words are arranged as in the other numbers; the illustrations are very good, and the lessons are well graduated. The poetic pieces show much taste, and the prose selections are chiefly of an instructive nature, consisting of fables, historical extracts, and lessons on natural history."--Educational Journal.
MOFFATT'S TEST PAPERS.-1s. 6d. each set.-These were favourably reviewed on their first edition. The second edition before us is very considerably improved and enlarged. As before, the series consists of
Perspective-full government size; 24 papers, 12 varieties; Second
Do. 48 , Second ,
Do. 36 , Second , All schools presenting pupils for the Drawing Examinations in these subjects should have these useful aids.
THE CHILDREN'S SCRIPTURE HELP, and THE LITTLE REMINDER: Mrs. White. Hayward's Heath, and W. Poole, Paternoster Row.-These are excellent little Scripture Manuals, written by a lady practically engaged in education, and would be found useful both to teachers and classes. Orders should be directed to the authoress as above, so as to save her expense.
To our Readers. Some misapprehension exists with respect to the MS. Answers to Government P. T. Monthly Examination Papers. These are issued for each of the 12 months of each of the five years of Apprenticeship (Old Code), and are 6d. a month for each year of apprenticeship, beginning with January, 1880. The questions are issued in the last week of each month, and so the MS. answers will be ready in the first week of next month. These are only to be had of H. Major, Leicester; not through booksellers. Very many orders have been received, and the series will give a P. T. 12 sets of model answers to Government P. T. Examinations in each year of apprenticeship, at 6d. a month, or 5s. for the year. He cannot thus fail in grasping the character of the questions set him at his annual examination. In ordering, please say what year of apprenticeship (Old Code) is required.
Intercommunications. 1. (1) At the Scholarship examination, have all the questions in the same section the same value? (2) What musical instruments are there in Borough Road Training College ? (3) Will any one recommend (with publisher and price) a book of selections from early writers (as Chaucer, Gower, Langland)?
G. HORSFALL. 2. Will any one oblige by shewing the working of the following sum:- At a school divided into four classes, of the children are in the first, it in the second, in the third, and in the fourtb six children more than half the number in the first three : find the whole number.
EASTLAND. 3. (1) There are four pieces of cloth of equal length: from each of the first two, if 27 yards be taken, and 21 yards be cut off from each of the two others, the remnants taken together will be 104 yards: what was the length of the pieces at first ? (2) A casket contains diamonds and pearls. The diamonds are worth as many times the worth of the pearls as the pearls are worth the value of the casket. The value of the diamonds is £3411 9s., and the casket is worth £1 ls.: what is the value of the pearls ?
Pupil Teachers' Government Monthly
AT the beginning of 1880 the above will be published monthly, SIXPENCE a set, for each month of each year of apprenticeship, and will be after the style of Major's printed Pupil Teachers' Questions and Answers, published at Sixpence each year. The above will contain, as models, fully worked Answers in Manuscript to all the Questions in Arithmetic, Algebra, Mensuration, Grammar, Geography, History, Notes of Lessons, given in each year of apprenticeship for each monthly examination.
For prepaid orders the charge will be 5s. yearly for each set of twelve papers for each year of apprenticeship, post free. Single monthly sets," 6£d. post free.
ORDERS CAN BE EXECUTED ONLY BY
H. MAJOR, B.A., B.Sc., Leicester
Civil Service Appointments.- Candidates successfully prepared through post. Pupils successful in recent Competitions for Clerkships (Lower Divisions and Prisons' Service), Customs, &c., all first time. Ixion, 39, Timpron Street, Liverpool, E.