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John Heywood's New Publications.

Stiff cover, price 6d; cloth, coloured, rs. THE BRITISH EMPIRE ATLAS. Containing 37 Maps, showing the Colonies and Dependencies of Great Britain in every part of the World.

Cloth, 2s.6d. THE BRITISH EMPIRE ATLAS AND GEOGRAPHY. Containing 37 Maps, coloured with 144 pp. letterpress, descriptive of the Geography of the British Possessions.

Fcap. 8vo, 96 pp., cloth, Is. 60. New and Revised Edition. THE PUPIL TEACHER'S GÉOGRAPHY AND HISTORY OF THE BRITISH POSSESSIONS. By J. S. Horn.

Price Is., cloth. MENTAL ARITHMETIC FOR SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES. With Answers and Specimens of Examination Papers. By R. Sutton.

Fcap. 8vo., 160 pp., cloth lettered, is. 6d.

THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND. With Illustrations from Scripture Biography and
Scripture Proofs. By R. Sutton.

Fcap. 8vo, 277 pp., cloth, 28. 6d.

By Rev. J. Davidson, B.A., Vicar of Christ Church, Chester. Designed mainly for young persons preparing for Diocesan, Training College, or Oxford and Cambridge Local Examinations.

Fcap. 8vo, 128 pp., cloth, rs, 6d. NOTES OF LESSONS ON THE CATECHISM OF THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND. By R. Sutton.

Crown Svo, 160 pp., cloth lettered, 28. 6d. First Series New Edition. THE TEACHER'S MANUAL OF OBJEĆT LESSONS. By A. Park, F.R.G.S., Head Master, Albion Schools, Ashton-under-Lyne.

Price 13.6d, each, with Key, or complete in I vol., 6s.

Code. Candidates' Book--First Year Book--Second Year Book-Third Year Book-
Fourth Year Book.

Fcap. 8vo, 272 pp., cloth, 3s. 6d.
SCHOOL MANAGEMENT AND'METHOD, 'in Theory and Practice. By J. J. Prince

Author of « The Elements of Physiography." Prepared mainly for Pupil Teachers and Students preparing to be examined for Queen's Scholarships, Certificates, &c. There are nearly 200 Questions previously set at Examinations, with Answers to the same, whilst a

number of Questions for the Student to answer himself are also given at the end. EXERCISES IN PENMANSHIP. By a Professor of Writing. In which the principles of the

Art of Writing are reduced to their simple elements. Engraved on two sides of a small card. This is a veritable multum in parvo on an important branch of every scholar's education, and which he, and even adults wishful to improve their handwriting, may have continually before them as a model. Price id. each.

The following Catalogues may be had, post free, on applicationA CATALOGUE OF EDUCATIONAL AND MISCELLANEOUS WORKS Containing a list of John HEYWOOD's own distinctive publications, with their retail price. This will be found to embrace & great variety of Educational Works (written mainly by practical authors), and from it heads of Schools and others may select books in almost every branch of study.

A CLASSIFIED AND ILLUSTRATED EDUCATIONAL CATALOGUE, Containing a general list of the leading School Books published, together with the most commonly used articles in Stationery and Materials This Catalogue, comprising 66 pages, 4to size, has been for years appreciated as the best reference list of its kind issued.

Suitable for Presents, Prizes, Libraries, and General Reading.


For any further particulars respecting terms, &c., please addressMr. JOHN HEYWOOD, Excelsior Buildings, Ridgefield, John Dalton Street, Manchester.

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The Science Questions and Answers. (Elementary and Advanced,

separate, 6d. each subject,) or Questions and Answers. Each

Question answered as fully as requisite in the May Examinations, . by H. MAJOR, B.A., B.Sc. (Honours, London, F.R.G.S.)

"A very useful book, teachers will find it a great aid."—(Physical Geography.r-F. C. Richardson, Science Teacher, Islington.

"I am well pleased with your Physical Geography and Animal Physiology, they are tho best books that have yet appeared, and I would advise all who go in for examinations to procuro copies, and success will be certain.”—James Gray, Rathbone, Ireland.

“I have examined your Examination Series (Inorganic Chemistry) and am highly pleased with it, no student who studies it can fail to gain a First Class. I would recommend every teacher to procure them."-W. Bettel, Laboratory, Middlesborough.

“I am very pleased with the Science Examination Series, I consider them useful to all students."—W. J. Lancaster, F.M.S. (Author of Physics.)

" The Physical Geography is a model of what such a publication should be; the answers are voll grouped, clear, concise, and correct."--T. B. Smith, People's College, Nottingham. " Physical Geography contains a large amount of information compressed into a small

98. These books contain the essentials of the subjects of which they treat, and are models of answering to students."-J. Stevenson, Carrickfergus.

“I strongly recommend all Scionce Lecturers to procure copies for their classes, they will materially assist in framing their answers at the May Examinations, and thus reduce the labour of teachers to a minimum."—W. T. Clements, Science Teacher, Maghera.

“I am much pleased with the plan of Questions and Answers in Animal Physiology. The hints given about the method of answering will prove of great service to many students." Rov. R. H. Morris, Principal, Training College, Carmarthen.

“Your idea is a very excellent one, and is well carried out."-T. Viccars, Torquay. "The answers will be found very valuable to students, and ought to take well."-P. Magennis.

“I like your Series very much, and think them well calculated to raise the per-centage of passes; they contain much information in a brief space, the answers are given in a good systematic form, greatly assisting the student in applying his knowledge at the Science Er. amination."-J. Fox, Orphan Working School

"I heartily recommend all teachers at once to supply their pupils with this excellent little work (Physical Geography). I heartily wish you success."-J. S. Card, Bristol.

“ Your Science Questions and Answers are exceedingly useful, the answers are fall, comprehensive, and determine the proper scope of the questions."--J. McGinley, Dunkenelly.

"A truly inestimable boon to teachers (Physical Geography); the whole series is a happy idea. Your answers to Magnetism, &c., are all that could be desired; students intending to sit should give them their best attention."-F. Spencer, Nottingham.

"The Mathematics and Mechanics are neatly worked out, and will be of great service to students unaccustomed to examinations."-J. Hayes, Liverpool.

" The Science Examination Series must be of great value to Science Students, by affording them excellent models of appropriate answers to Science and Art Questions. We heartily commend it to teachers as a valuable adjunct to their class examinations."-"Schoolmaster."

“ There is a great deal of art in knowing how to properly answer & question, even if the mind be stored with an amonnt of knowledge amply saflicient for the purpose. Consequently Mr. Major deserves the thanks of Science Teachers for issuing these little works, that will show scholars how to answer their questions. These books are a vast improvement on the old catechism, inasmuch as each question is here aliswered at considerable length, and as fully as would be necessary in a Government Examination. Scholars accustomed to them will not waste their time, but remembering the model answers they have here studied, will at once state what they know clearly, accurately, and intelligibly.”—-" National Schoolmaster."

“They supply a want that has long been felt by all who have to prepare for the May Ex. aminations, and will, I am confident, be favourably received by Science Teachers." --- House, Calham Training College.

“I like your Inorganic Chemistry much.”—M. Knowles, Science Teacher, Bradford.
“I like the Science Questions and Answers much."-J. Kinton Bond, Plymouth.

"A student cannot fail to get a First-Class if he studies how the answers in the Science Questions and Answers are put together."-F. S. Lewis, Science Teacher, Bristol. Science Questions, only, given by the Science Department, for the

last ten years. 2d. each subject, 2s. per duz., post free.

London Matriculation University.

ANSWERS TO ENGLISH LANGUAGE PAPERS. By Mr. J. Park, 1st B.A., Lond., in the Educational Journal. 2. Distinguish between the classical and the Teutonic elements in

English. Point out the several ways in which words of Latin

origin have been introduced into the language. The pronouns, numerals, prepositions, conjunctions, irregular adjectives, strong and auxiliary verbs—"the names of the elements and their changes, of the seasons, the heavenly bodies, the divisions of time, the features of natural scenery- the organs of the body, the modes of bodily action and posture-the commonest animals-the words used in earliest childhood-the ordinary terms of traffic—the constituent words in proverbs—the designation of kindred—the simpler emotions of the mind-terms of pleasantry, satire, contempt, indignation, invective, and anger," are for the most part Teutonic.

Words which in their meaning indicate a variety of feelings, and deeper thoughts, scientific terms, and words required for the interchange of thought by an advanced civilization, are of Latin origin. These last have been introduced into the language as follows:-(1) A few during the Roman occupation of Britain; (2) when Christianity was introduced, A.D. 596; (3) at the Norman conquest, through the NormanFrench ; (4) at the revival of classical learning in the sixteenth century; (5) in modern times, as the advance of science and art required new terms. 3. Define the terms “vowel," - diphthong," "consonant.” What letters

are called “mutes," and how are they subdivided ? Tell the

substance of Grimm's Law. A vowel is the sound produced when the air is not interrupted in its passage ontwards. A diphthong is the combination of two vowels in a word. A consonant is the sound produced when the air is interrupted wholly or partially by the organs of speech in its passage outwards. When the air-tube is entirely closed in producing a sound, it is called a mute. The mutes are subdivided according to the organs of speech employed in their expression. Labials, p, b, f, v; dentals, t, th, d; gutturals, k, ch, g, gh.. Grimm's Law states that when a word passes from one language to another it undergoes a change in form characteristic of the language into which it is introduced.

4. Describe the several ways of indicating gender in English nouns,

including explanations of the words a woman," " lady," "vixen,"

"seamstress," " mistress,” “ bridegroom," "widower," " drake." Gender is indicated in English (a) by a different word, (b) by a prefix, (c) by a suffix.

Woman (A.S., wif-man) is a feminine formation from man, by the prefix wif.

Lady (hlæfdige) is irregularly derived from lord (hlaford). The y represents the feminine suffix -ige.

Vixen is a feminine formation from fox, by the feminine suffix -en.

Seamstress has a double feminine suffix-thé A.S. -ster, and the Norman -ess.

In the word mistress the rooted-vowel of master has been changed, and the termination modified. 1 In bridegroom we have an instance of the masculine being formed from the feminine.' Groom is a corrupt form of A.S. guma, 'a man.

Widower is derived from widow, by the addition of the masculine suffix -er. Drake is a masculine formation from duck. 5. What arguments might be used for or against the recognicion of

the article as a distinct part of speech? Tell what you know of

the history of "an" and " the.” The article is frequently called an adjective, but by the peculiar meaning which it now possesses it has little qualifying power. On the other hand, as they are only two in number, some grammarians hold that they ought not to be formed into a separate part of speech; and when their etymology is considerel, a or an is a modified form of the numeral one (A.S., an ;, O.E., ane), with its meaning rendered indefinite, while the is in reality the demonstrative pronoun. In A.Ş. and 0.E. the, thes, thet, or that was declined like an adjective. . 6. Trace as fully as you can the history of the inflexions of “thou,"

and of “he," "she," "it," in singular and plural. - Thou (A.S., thu), thine (-ne, suffix of the genitive), dative and accusative thee (A.S., the).

His (A.S., his ; 0.E., hys, hise), used occasionally in 0.E. for her.

Him, originally dative, but commonly used as an accusative. The accusative in A.S. was hine, and in 0.E. hyne. This was either replaced by the dative, or gradually assumed the same form.'

Her, genitive, dative, and accusative in modern English. The genitive and dative in A.S. were hire, while the old accusative was hi.

Its did not exist in the 0.E. or A.S. Instead of it we find his, her, it, especially the first.

They, in A.S. hi, and in 0.E. hi, he, hei, thei.

Their, in A.S. hira, heora, and in 0.E. during the unsettled spelling there were many forms, the commonest being hire, here, and ther. · Them, originally dative; A.S., him, heom; O.E., hem, hom, tham. This dative is now used as the accusative hi. 7. Account for the separate forms “two" and "twain," and for the

words, “ten,” “eleven,” “twelve," "hundred,” “thousand,"

“first," "second,” “ dozen," "score," "" fortnight.” In 0.E. the numeral two was declined like an adjective, and another form of the nominative was twynne or twain. Ten represents the earlier forms taihun and tyn. Eleven is a compound of en = one, and lufon = ten. Twelve is a compound of twe, two, and lufon or leven, ten. Hundred was originally hund; then in 0.E. it received the suffix -er; and still later it received the substantival termination -eth, written commonly t or d. Thousand (A.S., thusend). First, the superlative of for. Second, from Latin secundo, following. In A.S. there was no single word to express "second," the phrase the other being used instead. This want was felt, and the Norman-French term second was

introduced. Dozen (Fr., douzaine). Score (Sax., scor), having reference to a primitive method of computation. Fortnight is a contraction from fourteen nights. 8. What is meant by the terms “strong” and “weak" applied to the

conjugation of verbs ? Explain the 'difference between the two forms” of conjugation by telling what you know about their history. A verb is said to belong to the strong conjugation when its past indefinite (active) is formed by the modification of the root-vowel; and to the weak when it is formed by the addition of t, d, or ed. The modification of the root-vowel has been explained on the supposition that a reduplication at one time existed which is now lost; while on the other hand, with the weak conjunction the suffix -de in 0.E. is supposed to be identical with did, the past indefinite of do. . 9. Discuss the inflections of the verbs" may,” “ can," "shall," "have,"

" will," "do." May was in A.S. mog, and had for its past indefinite miht or mighte, These, in their slightly modified forms, may and might, still exist as anxiliaries. Can had for its past indefinite couth or coud, in which last an i has been afterwards inserted on the supposition that this verb had been formed in a similar manner to would and should. Shall has its past indefinite should, derived from A.S. scholde, shuld, or sulde. Have is in A.S. habbe ; and it is thus conjugated-Have, hast (hæfst or habest), has (haveth). The past indefinite in A.S. was hoefde, and in 0.E. hadde. Will has its past indefinite derived from the A S. wolde. In the past indefinite of do, we have a single example of a reduplication in modern English. This form did still more clearly shows its reduplication in A.S. when it was written dyde. 10. Account for the use of “to” in the infinitive present, and for its

occasional omission in an infinitive after a verb, as, “I dare say." The present infinitve of Saxon verbs were frequently used as if they were substantives, and as such were capable of being, as it were, in the oblique cases after a preposition. The frequent use of the preposition " to " for this purpose has led to its being regularly employed with the infinitive. In 0.E. this “to” was frequently omitted before the infinitive, and with certain verbs, as, dare, make, &c., it still is omitted. 11. Make two classifications of adverbs--one logical, according to their meaning; etymological, according to their form and origin.

Time-now, then, daily, always, often, to-morrow.
Place-here, below, everywhere, there, above.
Degree-much, very, too, almost, extremely.
Manner-wisely, well, thus, securely, ill.
Cause—why, wherefore, therefore, hence.

From nouns : manly, bodily, homeward.
From pronouns : here, hence, there, thence, wherever.
From adjectives: wisely, sweetly, surely.
From verbs : astray, lovingly.

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