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Stiff cover, price 6d; cloth, coloured, is. THE BRITISH EMPIRE ATLAS. "Containing 37 Maps, showing the Colonies and Dependencies of Great Britain in every part of the World.
* Cloth, 2s.6d. THE BRITISH EMPIRE ATLAS AND GÉOGRAPHY. Containing 37 Maps, coloured with 144 pp. letterpress, descriptive of the Geography of the British Possessions.
Fcap. 8vo, 96. pp., cloth, is. 6d. New and Revised Edition. THE PUPIL TEACHER'S GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY OF THE BRITISH POSSESSIONS. By J. S. Horn.
Price Is., cloth. MENTAL ARITHMETIC FOR SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES. With Answers and Specimens of Examination Papers. By R. Sutton.
Fcap. 8vo., 160 pp., cloth lettered, is. 6d.
THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND. With Illustrations from Scripture Biography and
Fcap. 8vo, 277 pp., cloth, 2s. 6d.
By Rev. J. Davidson, B.A., Vicar of Christ Church, Chester. Designed mainly for young persons preparing for Diocesan, Training College, or Oxford and Cambridge Local Examinations
Fcap. 8vo, 128 pp., cloth, is, 6d. NOTES OF LESSONS ON THE CATECHISM OF THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND. By R. Sutton,
Crown Svo, 160 pp., cloth lettered, 25. 6d. First Series, New Edition. THE TEACHER'S MANUÁL OF OBJECT LESSONS. By A. Park, F.R.G.S., Head Master, Albion Schools, Ashton-under-Lyne.
Price is.6d. each, with Key, or complete in I vol., 6s.
Code. Candidates' Book-First Year Book-Second Year Book-Third Year Book-
. Fcap. 8vo, 272 pp., cloth, 35. 6d. SCHOOL MANAGEMENT AND METHOD, 'in Theory and Practice. By J. J. Prince
Author of "The Elements of Physiography." Prepared mainly for Pupil Teachers and Students preparing to be examined for Queen's Scholarships, Certificates, &c. There are nearly 200 Questions previously set at Examinations, with Answers to the same, whilst a
number of Questions for the Student to answer himself are also given at the end. EXERCISES IN PENMANSHIP. By a Professor of Writing. In which the principles of the
Art of Writing are reduced to their simple elements. Engraved on two sides of a small card. This is a veritable multum in parvo on an important branch of every scholar's educa. tion, and which he, and even adults wishful to improve their handwriting, may have c ntinually before them as a model. Price id. each.
The following Catalogues may be had, post free, on applicationA CATALOGUE OF EDUCATIONAL AND MISCELLANEOUS WORKS, Containing a list of JOHN HEYWOOD's own distinctive publications, with their retail price. This will be found to embrace a great variety of Educational Works (written mainly by practical authors), and from it heads of Schools and others may select books in almost every branch of study.
A CLASSIFIED AND ILLUSTRATED EDUCATIONAL CATALOGUE, Containing a general list of the leading School Books published, together with the most commonly used articles in Stationery and Materials. This Catalogue, comprising 66 pages, 4to size, has been for years appreciated as the best reference list of its kind issued.
A CATALOGUE OF JUVENILE AND OTHER WORKS.
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School Wethod and Management.
GEOGRAPHY-STANDARD I. (c) DEFINITIONS to children should always be given after the things to be defined have been explained; but to men we must remember that the dictum Definissez vos termes meets us at the threshold.
definitio = genus + differentia
= animal + rational
= biped + featherless man
= animal +. laughing Mind that definition is not explanation, neither is it division. Now, both explanation and division should precede mere verbal definition. Instead of words we should give notions of concrete, e.g., a lake=a hollow in the land filled up by running water (Ansted). This gives something more than definition, viz., origin, and a picture, so avoid“ Lake=water surrounded by land,” which it is not sometimes (when rivers run into or out of it, or when the lake is connected with another lake). Be sure to illustrate every definition by many examples, without names, picked out by self and children on map or portable globe; besides this give one typical example, with name for each definition, e.g., in capes give the Cape of Good Hope. Moreover, let children know, and know how to find out, place of each continent, and of each ocean. The following illustrations may be useful, and have been found so in practice. Let a boy stand for land-mass; suppose he is in water, then his neck=isthmus, his nose=cape, his mouth half open=galf, wider open=a bay, arm or leg=a peninsula, finger tips=capes, eyes= lakes. Draw imaginary maps on board, let children fill in rivers, lakes, &c. Next let boy stand for globe-waist belt=equator, head and feet
=poles. - Some teachers use shallow boxes or trays, with clay for land, and sand for water, and so make countries, &c. Myers' cheap papier maché bas-relief maps are useful. But the best of all illustrations are natural ones, and those within the actual sight and knowledge of the child, e.g., the double sloped roof of a honse=watershed (water divider), long roof=slope, the short=counter slope. A hill with others piled on top=mountains, to be measured by the height of a church. Streams in neighbourhood=rivers; if there are none, rain in gatter will do Pond=lake, rock in it=island; orange=globe, knittingneedle=axis (but give no name to it).
NOTES OF A LESSON ON “PROOFS OF THE ROTUNDITY OF
THE EARTH.” 1.-Circumnavigation (weak proof). 2.-Appearance of ship at sea, and of land from ship. 3—Latitude of place-altitude of Polar Star going over round world. 4.--A balloonist at eve ascending sees the sun again. 5.--Shadow of earth=spherical. 6.—The engineer's dip of eight inches per mile proves rotundity.
7.-Put three sticks in the water, look from top of one to the top of the third; if a mile from middle, the line of sight cuts off eight inches of middle stick-this illustrates din.
7/8.--All revolving plastic bodies become oblate spheroids, low & e ... 9.-Triangles on spherical earth have more than two right angles in each spherical triangle. id login (4:37 tot 99012,'?BTI .
GEOGRAPHY.-STANDARD 111, The geography of Standard III., in England, is, and onght to be, that of our own country'; but in Scotland and Ireland it should be the geography of those countries. This principle of nationality is recognised in America and the Colonies, and shoald be recognised in Scotland and Ireland in their reading books, which should contain geography, history, and literature of those two countries. In any other than onr own country, the order of treating the subject should be a natural one, namely,
1. Mountainous Systems, or vertical configuration—2 and 3 will depend on this. It may almost be said that when the direction of mountain chains is given, we can ourselves determine 2 and 3. * 2. ' Rivers-The size, direction, and length of these depend on 1.
3. Outline, or horizontal configuration-Comprising capes and inlets.
4. Towns—The situation of these in modern times, for commercial reasons, depends on rivers (navigable), with free outlet to sea ; slow and tidal. Tipi? Mis 15. Olimate and Productions (temperature, moisture, wind)-Climate, the sum of weathers, both for time and for space; the latter should be grouped under: (a)-Mineral. (b)-Vegetable. (c)-Animal (rare) grouped under: 1.-Exports. 2-Imports. 11:101 ,
u 6. People-As population, government, religion, education. This method should be adopted with our own country, but not at first. Thus, point out that Wales is the most elevated part of England, and that England slopes from it to east, and say this is because the country has been pushed up from beneath the sea, as by a hand under, Wales (illustrate by raising up book at gentle slope). This fact will determine: (a)-The eastern How of the rivers (Severn, &c.). (6)-Character of monntains (granite, because old in Wales). (c)-The seat of mineral and metal wealth. Contrasted with this take the Wash a few feet only above the sea, being daily added to or subtracted from by the sea (picture of Holland), with sluggish, winding rivers, and the people -are agricultural, and decreasing in population... Tuan 10 a dent
But in giving first lessons on our own country, begin in one's own locality. The difficulty in this respect will vary very much with the (locality; the simpler the physical features, and the more compact they are, the easier the task; thus, Devonshire, Cornwall, the six Northern counties, and, still more, the three Eastern of these would be easy, but the Midlands would be hard. London and Oxford would be easy, perhaps the easiest, as from these places we can map out a whole rivervalley. Note. A large part of every country is made up of rivervalleys. The class should be taught so that it might have mental pictures of these, for they group together: (a) + Mountains and bills in the lines of watersheds. (6)-Rivers. (c)-Towns. T hoibloa en The county geography should be introduction to geography of the country, by means of imaginary excursions from the locality, until the outline is given to round in all. When this has been done, the country,
as a whole, should be broken up into sections, partly physical, partly political, viz., counties: 1-Six Northern counties. 2-Ten Southern. 3-Four Eastern, for these have a physical boundary on east. 4-Four western. 5—Then all the remainder can go together. 6—Wales. Then the subject might be divided into other sections, e.g.: 1-The ooalfields of England (see S. Clarke's maps, and the Gem Geography). 2-River basins. 3-Ports. 4-Seats of hardware. 5-Pleasure resorts. i 6-Iron mining and smelting. 7-Battle fields (the history and geography of a conntry shonld always go together; thus the sections of England marked by Danish (Norse) invasions (e.g., River Trent, E. Anglia, Lancashire), should be distinct in child's mind). This distinctiveness can be illustrated by reference to: 1-Characteristic names of places. 2.-Colour of hair, eyes, &c., in children.
Cimit(To be continued.) vagy
immortel Basutoland. vi. Basutoland may be described as the Wales of South Africa. It is a little province fitted in at the north-east corner of the Cape Colony, between the Orange Free State, the Cape Colony, and Natal. It is about 150 miles long, by 50 broad, its length running parallel to the Orange Free State, or, roughly speaking, nearly parallel at some distance inland with the coast line. Some of its table lands are nearly 5,000ft. above the sea, while its loftiest mountain is credited with a height of over 10,000ft. The cold throughout the whole of Basutoland is very severe in the months of June, July, August, and even September. Though Basutoland may be said to be 150 miles by 50‘miles in size, the eastern side of its breadth is scarcely inhabited on account of the extreme cold, and of the inacessible character of the mountains. The most thickly. populated districts of the little country extend nearly along its whole length, but are of a breadth of about thirty miles only the thirty miles to the north-west and lying next to the Orange Free State. It is from the Free State, then, that Basatoland can be most easily entered, and its chief stations, which lie within a few hours of the Free State border, most safely and easily reached.
The Basutos are mostly remnants of tribes who were driven before the Caffres. Early in the century they took refuge in the mountain fastdesses of Basutoland to escape the pitiless soldiery of the Zulu conqneror Chaka. It was on the steep and rocky hill of Thaba Bosigo that Moshesh, the first paramount chief of the Basutos, rallied the starved and desperate men of the different clans of his race, made a successful stand against the Zalus, and laid the foundation of the Basuto nation. The romantic history of Moshesh, his power and skill in leading his people from partial cannibalism to comparative civilization, his military and diplomatic victories over white and black foe, might tempt us to linger. To speak of tho Basutos as equal or nearly equal to the Zulus in fighting qualities is a mistake. The Basutos lack the discipline, the reckless bravery, and the taste for fighting possessed by the Zulu soldiers. The Basutos have no military organization, merely turning out or being turned out by their chiefs for fighting by tribes or clans. They are not soldiers like the Zalus were before the Zala army was broken up, but are merely hardy mountaineers. N!7 inak..