brought over, with dollars and whiskey, to give their assent, and thus the tribe would be sold; but they seemed to have great reliance on a chief who was present, named Big Kettle, to oppose fallacy of the treaty, and rouse the whole tribe to oppose it

. The business of the day ended, however, with the commissioner's statement, and at three o'clock the council adjourned till the following day.

On our return homeward we halted at the spot near the Missionhouse and church, built on the grounds of the Indian Reservation, for the purpose of visiting the tomb of Red Jacket, the famous Seneca chief, who was buried here about seven years ago; and the grave of Mary Jameson, “the white woman,” as she was always called, who was born of Irish parents on their voyage out from England to America as emigrants, was afterward captured by the Indians, and subsequently married and survived two Indian Chiefs as husbands, leaving by them a large family of half-breed Indian children, who are now members of the Seneca nation. The part taken by Red Jacket in resisting the encroachment of the whites, and defending the right of the red man to the soil of his ancestors, gave him unbounded popularity among his tribe, and spread his reputation among the Indian nations generally. In the first treaty between the United States and the Six Nations after the Revolution in 1784, Red Jacket first rose into notice, and the narrative of this is thus given in Mr. O'Reilly's History of the Lands of the Six Nations:

“ 'The cession of their hunting-grounds northwest of the Ohio was vigorously, though unavailingly, opposed by several of the red men. Saguaha, or Red Jacket, then young and nameless among the head men, rose rapidly in favour with the Senecas for his hostility to the measure; while the popularity of their great chief, Corn-planter, suffered severely among his race for his partiality to the whites in the arrangement. The reservation on the Alleghany river, whereon his descendants still abide, formed part of the gratuity bestowed on the half-breed chief (for Cornplanter was the son of John Abeel or O’Bail) whose exertions contributed so largely to the furtherance of the views of the American government. The patriotism of Red Jacket was then thoroughly aroused, and his wisdom and eloquence were both zealously employed to vindicate the rights of the red man against the encroaching influence of the

pale faces. He was elected a chief among the Senecas soon after this treaty, and his influence was great among the Indian confederacy for upward of forty years, till death prevented him from witnessing the complete success of the policy (which he had resolutely opposed) for the total expatriation of his race by the removal westward of the fragments of the Six Nations yet lingering in Western New-York.

The hostility of Red Jacket to the treaty of Fort Stanwix was so ingenious and enthusiastic, that it was vividly remembered by Lafayette (though the name of the orator was forgotten) on his last visit to the United States. It is not surprising that the name should have been forgotten, as, at the time of the treaty, Red Jacket was young and nameless among his tribe, his character having then only begun to develop itself

, though he had not been backward among the warriors, whose hostilities



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in the Revolutionary war provoked the summary vengeance inflicted on their confederacy by the expedition of General Sullivan. When at Buffalo on his tour through the Union, Lafayette was reminded by Red Jacket of the treaty of Fort Stanwix. The occurrences are fresh in my memory,' said the veteran general; 'and what became of the young warrior who then so eloquently opposed the burying of the tomahawk, and who so zealously resisted ihe cession of lands to the whites?' 'He IS NOW BEFORE YOU !' said Red Jacket.

“An anecdote characteristic of Red Jacket has been mentioned to us by an old settler. At the conference for the formation of the treaty, Colonel Pickering commenced making memoranda as Red Jacket was speaking. The Indian orator, while depicting the wrongs which the red men had suffered from the encroachments of the whites, paused suddenly, addressed himself with energetic dignity to Colonel Pickering, and exclaimed, 'Look up from the table, brother, and fix your eyes upon my eyes, that you may see that what Saguaha the truth, and no lie !!

Of the “ White Woman," whose tomb lies side by side with that of Red Jacket, a biographical memoir was drawn up in 1823 by Mr. J. E. Seaver, of Genesee, assisted by Mr. D. W. Barrister and others, who were enabled to obtain from her lips the record of many facts, which would otherwise have passed into obscurity or oblivion by her death. The work was entitled, “ A Narrative of the Life of Mary Jameson, who was taken by the Indians in the year 1755, when only about twelve years of age, and has continued to reside among them to the present time; containing an account of the murder of her father and his family; her troubles with her sons, who were killed in feuds among themselves or with others; barbarities of the Indians in the French and Revolutionary war; the life of Hiokatoo, her last husband (a Seneca chief, who died at the age of 103), his exploits against the Cherokees, Catateas, and other Southern Indians; and many historical facts never before published, carefully taken down from her own words, November 29, 1823.”

Among the atrocities perpetrated by the Indians during the Rev. olutionary war, the conduct of an Englishman named Ebenezer Allen, often called the Indian Allen, surpassed that of any of his red allies. The White Woman, in her narrative, says of him, “ While prowling with his Indian allies in the Susquehanna Valley, he surprised the inmates of a dwelling by bursting suddenly upon them in their beds. The father, springing up to defend his family, was killed by one blow of Allen's tomahawk. The head of the murdered man was thrown at his feeble wife, from whose arms the infant was torn, and dashed to death before her eyes! It has been said," continues the White Woman, “though I will not relate it for a certainty, that, after perpetrating these murders, he opened the fire, and buried the quivering corpse of the infant beneath the embers :” and she adds, “I have often heard him speak of the transactions of that family as the foulest crimes he had ever committed.”

This Allen was one of the English Tories who opposed the American Revolution, and fought with the Indians against the colonists. He seems, as his biographer justly remarks, to have united “the lasciviousness of the Turk with the bloodthirstiness of a savage,

and his whole career appears to have been made up of lust, rapine, and cruelty; adulteries and murders were his daily food: he married wives, and then put them to death ; stole virgins, and then cast them off; took captives for concubines, and then drowned them, as well as their former husbands, with a degree of barbarity that was perfectly demoniacal. He died on the River De French, at the town of Delaware, in 1814, leaving two white widows, an Indian squaw, and several children to survive him.” The accuracy

of this narrative of the White Woman is corroborated by the history of General Sullivan's expedition against the Indians of the Six Nations, published in 1824 by Mr. Salmon, who died during the last year, 1837. This expedition of General Sullivan was undertaken in 1779, when the American Congress recommended, and General Washington adopted, the most rigorous measures to avenge the atrocities perpetrated by the Indians, “whose deeds were inscribed with the scalping-knife and the tomahawk, in characters of blood, on the fields of Wyoming and Cherry Valley, and on the banks of the Mohawk.

“Of these cruelties, stimulated, and often perpetrated, by the English Tories leading the Indians and acting with them, the following is only one of many specimens. It occurred in the attack of the British Rangers, under Colonel Butler, and is given in Salmon's narrative, and corroborated by several other authorities:

“A party of Indians, then in the British employ, had entered a house, and killed and scalped a mother and a large family of children. This was at a spot on the west side of the Genesee River, where a small town called Leicester now stands. The Indians had just completed their work of death, when some Royalists belonging to their party came up, and discovered an infant still alive in the cradle. "An Indian warrior, noted for his barbarity, approached the cradle with his uplifted hatchet. The babe looked up in his face and smiled; the feelings of nature triumphed over the ferocity of the savage; the hatchet fell from his hand, and he was in the act of stooping down to take the infant in his arms, when one of the Royalists, cursing the Indian for his humanity, took it up on the point of his bayonet, and, holding it up, struggling in the agonies of death, exclaimed, 'This, too, is a rebel ! »

Such are the atrocities of war, and such the extinction of all humanity, even in the breasts of the loyal, the chivalrous, and the devout, the upholders of the divine right of kings, and the defenders of Church and State as the great bulwarks of Christianity.

Some remarkable exposures of the agency of Great Britain in producing these atrocities have been brought to light from time to



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time, and two of them are sufficiently remarkable to be quoted here. The first was a communication made by the great Indian rival of Red Jacket, a chief also of the Seneca tribe, named Corn-planter, who was always as friendly to the whites as Red Jacket was hostile to them, and whose testimony is unexceptionable on this point. So recently as 1822, when residing on the banks of the Alleghany River, where he had a tract of land on which he dwelt, he makes the following disclosure to the Legislature of Pennsylvania, then in session at Harrisburg. He says:

“ I will tell you now, brothers, who are in session in the Legislature of Pennsylvania, that the Great Spirit has made known to me that I have been very wicked, and the cause thereof was the Revolutionary war in America. The cause of the Indians having been led into sin at that time was, that many of them were in the practice of drinking and getting intoxicated. Great Britain requested us to join in the conflict against the Americans, and promised the Indians money and liquor. I myself was opposed to joining in the conflict, as I had nothing to do with the difficulty that existed between the two parties.”

The other authority is that of the White Woman, whose narrative was taken down from her own lips in 1823, without concert with Corn-planter, who was then at a distance, and had for years lived estranged from the tribe, in consequence of his being opposed to the policy of Red Jacket, and thought to be too favourable to the whites. Their statement, therefore, independent as it is of the other, and going much more into detail, must be regarded as strikingly corroborative of the truth of Corn-planter's averment; and, though it places the conduct of the British in a most detestable light, it is right that the nation itself, and the world, should know to what atrocities colonial misgovernment may lead. The White Woman says:

“After the conclusion of the French war [or, rather, after the termination of the difficulties consequent on the connexion of the Senecas with the conspiracy of Pontiac), our tribe had nothing to trouble them till the commencement of the Revolution. For twelve or thirteen years the implements of war were not known, nor the war-whoop heard, save on days of festivity, when the achievements of former times were commemorated in a kind of mimic warfare, in which the chiefs and war. riors displayed their prowess, and illustrated their former adroitness, by laying the ambuscade, surprising their enemies, and performing many accurate manœuvres with the tomahawk and scalping-knife, thereby preserving and handing down to their children the theory of Indian warfare. During that period they also pertinaciously observed the religious rites of their progenitors, by attending, with the most scrupulous exactness and a great degree of enthusiasm, to the sacrifices at different times, to appease the anger of the evil deity, or to excite the commiseration and friendship of the great good Spirit, whom they adored with reverence as the author, governor, supporter, and disposer of every good thing of which they participated. “They also practised in various athletic games, such as running,


wrestling, leaping, and playing ball, with a view that their bodies might be more supple, or, rather, that they might not become enervated, and that they might be enabled to make a proper selection of chiess for the councils of the nation and leaders for war. No people can live more happy than the Indians did in times of peace, before the introduction of spirituous liquors among them. Their lives were a continual round of pleasures. Their wants were few and easily satisfied, and their cares were only for to-day, the bounds of their calculations for future comforts scarcely extending to the incalculable uncertainties of to-morrow. If ever peace dwelt with men, it was in former times, in the recesses from war, among those who are now termed barbarians. The moral character of the Indians was (if I may be allowed the expression) uncontaminated. Their fidelity was perfect, and became proverbial; they were strictly honest; they despised deception and falsehood; and chastity was held in high veneration ; a violation of it was considered sacrilege. They were temperate in their desires, moderate in their passions, and candid and honourable in the expression of their sentiments on every subject of importance.

“Thus, at peace among themselves and with the neighbouring whites, though there were none at that time very near, our Indians lived quietly and peaceably at home till a little before the breaking out of the Revolutionary war, when they were sent for, together with the chiefs and members of the Six Nations generally, by the people of the States, to go to German Flats and there hold a general council, in order that the people of the States might ascertain in good season whom they should esteem and treat as enemies and whom as friends, in the great war which was then upon the point of breaking out between them and the king of England.

“Our Indians obeyed the call, and the council was holden, at which the pipe of peace was smoked and a treaty made, in which the Six Nations solemnly agreed that, if a war should eventually break out, they would not take up arms on either side, but that they would observe a strict neutrality. With that the people of the States were satisfied, as they did not ask their assistance, and did not wish it. The Indians returned to their homes, well pleased that they could live on neutral ground, surrounded witaì the dini of war without being engaged in it.

“The treaty here referred to was made by General Schuyler with the Indian council assembled at German Flats on the 14th of June, 1776, pursuant to an act of Congress of the 6th May, providing that treaties should be held with the Indians in the different departments as soon as practicable,' &c.

“About a year passed off," says the White Woman, “and we, as usual for some years before, were enjoying ourselves in the employments of peaceable times, when a messenger arrived from the British commissioners, requesting all the Indians of our tribe to attend a general council which was soon to be held at Oswego. The council convened; and being opened, the British commissioners informed the chiefs that the object of calling a council of the Six Nations was to engage their assistance in subduing the rebels, the people of the States, who had risen up against the good king their master, and were about to rob him of a great part of his possessions and wealth. The commissioners added, that they would amply reward the Indians for all their services.

“The chiefs then rose, and informed the commissioners of the nature and extent of the treaty which they had entered into with the people of the States the year before, and that they should not violate it by taking up the hatchet against them. The commissioners continued their en

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