2. The queen most bountifully entertained him with all courtesy and hospitality.

3. Because the townsmen offered so little money to redeem the town, they began to demolish all the noblest buildings (splendidissima

quæque tecta). For the English all of them, all of whom, the best Latin writers use illi omnes, qui omnes.

The English word every may also be variously rendered by singuli, quisque, when it implies each ; sometimes by singuli repeated; by alius, alius, when it implies a diversity; each in their separate cases; as, Trahit sua quemque voluptas; singulis legionibus singulos legatos. Χvery, before a word of time, or used distributively, may likewise be rendered by in, with an accusative case.

1. The strength of all sciences, like the old man's fagot, consists not in every single stick (in singulis quibusque virgultis), but in all of them united in the band. 2. To every thing there is a seasom, and it is the duty of every man to use his time profitably to himselfand others (utiliter et sibi et aliis uti). 3. In every corner of the court, there was a court (plural). 4. He changes his wavering mind every hour (in horas). 5. No one gave less than eighteen bushels every acre.

The word some, also, when repeated, or followed by the word other, is rendered by alius alius, or hic and ille.

1. Of the things objected to him, some he acknowledged, some he extenuated, somè, he excused by reasom of human frailty, and the greater part he flatly denied.

2. Certainly the inclination of princes to some men, and their aversion to others, may seem fatal.

3. Some think one thing, some another.

One amother is also rendered by hic and ille, by alter alter, alius alius, and quisque : as, one man delights in one style of speaking, another in another : alius alio dicendi genere gaudet. 1. It was agreed, that there should be free commerce (liberum inde invicem commercium fore), till the one prince should denounce war against the other.

2. There is one kind of deportment due to a father, and another to w son ; one to our own countryman, and amother to a stranger; ome to a friend or benefactor, and another to an enemy who has injured us.

Instead qf is expressed in Latin : lst. Before a substantive, by pro with an ablative, loco or vice with a genitive.

1. Cato alone is to me instead qf a hundred. 2. Men who read Lucilius instead of Horace, and Lucretius instead

of Virgil 3. Š have so endeared yourself to me by your kindmess, that you shall always be to me instead qf a brother.

When a succession or change of place is expressed, instead of is rendered by in locum.

1. When men are about to engage in battle, hoy could they shake off the fear of so many toils and pains, and even of death itself, if, instead qf them, piety änd fortitude, and the image of honour, was not present to their minds?

2. He sent me instead qf another.

2dly, before a verb,

If the subject is a thing that ought to be done, instead of is expressed by cùm with the subjunctive of debeo ; as,

Instead qf studying, he plays : Ludit cùm studere deberet.

1. Instead qf showing his gratitude for the favours he has received, he wholly neglects his j£j;

2. Instead qf observing a strict discipline, the soldiers of the ememy are now dispersed over the whole country (in agris dispalati vagantur).

If the subject is a tbìng that might be done, instead of is expressed by cùm wj£n the subjunctive of possum ; as,

Instead qf playjzig, he studies : Studet cùm ludere posset.

1. Instead of beaking himself to rest, after the fatigues and labours of the day, he “sed to retire into his closet, where he generally devoted several hours of the might to study and meditation.

2. Instead of sheltering hiinself under a tree, he encounters (nudum caput oljicit) the whole fury of the storm.

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If the verb is in a past tense, debeo or possum must be put in the pluperfect ; as, v

He played instead qf studying: Ludebat cùm studere debuisset.

1. Instead qf pursuing the ememy, and reaping the fruits of his glorious victory at Cannæ, Hannibal kept his army the greatest part. of the winter at Capua, the dissoluteness and luxuries of which city so enervated the minds and bodies of his soldiers, that Marcellus seems to have said yith great propriety (verè dixisse) that Capua had proved a Cannæ to Hannibal.

2. The tyrant Dionysius, instead qf adorning the mind of the son of Dion with virtue and learning, brought him up in such a manner, that, though he was but a Ég; (ut quum puer adinodum esset), he soom plunged into every species of debauchery and dissoluteness.

3dly, Ifit is a thing that ought not to be done, instead of is turned into and not, or rather than ; as,

You ought to study, instead qf playing: Studere deberes, non autem ludere; or, studere deberes, potiùs quàm ludere.

1. A wise governor ought to encourage Ε arts, instead qf endangering the safety of his country by useless wars.

2. Shall we spend our precious time in ease and idleness, instead qf studying the liberal arts, and storing our minds with various kinds of knowledge ?

So far from, is rendered in Latin sometimes by adeò non, ita non, sometimes by tantùm abest ut, followed by ut, or by non modò non-sed etiam, non solùm non-verùm etiam; as,

You are so far from loving me, that you rather hate me : Tantùm abest ut me ames, ut me potius oderis.

Observe that the best authors often use non modò, for non modò non.

1. He was so fur from being superstitious, that he despised those many sacrifices and temples in his own country : so far from being fearful of death (ita non timidus ad mortem), that he was slain in battle in the service of the public. 2. He was so far frgm being greedy of money, that he made no other use ofit, than to free his friends from dangers and inconveniences with it. (/1n ablative vith participle fut. in dus.) 3. You are so far from loving me, that you injure me as much as you can (quantùm in te est). 4. So für is my grieffrom being lessened, that it is increased.

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On the point qf, is rendered in Latin by in eo ut ; it is in agitation to, by id agitur ut; and in the case qf, before a noun, is expressed by in with an ablative.

1. As he had been cast in his suit (quoniam causâ cecidisset), hæ was om the point qfbeing ruined. 2. They made a sally from every gate, and were already om the oint qf being ijii?, when they sounded a retreat, and returnea into the town. 3. He had as many votes as the law required, and it was undenstood that it vas in agitation to elect him consul. 4. He assured them (fidem iis dedit), that he would do as he had done in the case qf his other enemies.

Primus, unus, solus, ultimus, frustrâ, &c., are used simply . with the verb, instead of primus fuit qui, & also the interrogative quis ; as,

VVho is there that would not embrace virtue hersef? Quis virtutem non amplectitur ipsam ?

1. He apas the only one vpho remained at his post.

2. Sicily was the first qf foreign states vohich courted the friendship of the Roman people.

3. But the Ubians, who were the only nation of all those beyond the Rhine, that had sent ambassadors to Cæsar, earnestly entreated him to come over to their assistance (ut sibi auzilium ferret).

4. It is in vain for a man to avoid prodigality, if he turns to the contrary excess.

VVithout, before a substantive, after a negation, may be expressed by nisi, nisi cum ; as, They fight not without pay : mom £! nisi stipendiati.

1. Labienus, when he had spoken these things, swore that he would not return into the camp without victory (without being victorious).

2. The queen answered that she had no power to give the daughters of her subjects in marriage, vithout the coi;sent of their parents.

Or it may be expressed by a verb, a participle, or an adverb ; as, Grass grvvs without bidding, or sowing : injussa virescunt gramina. 1. The death of this mam vcas not vpithout suspicion of poison ameng the vulgar, who always suspect those to be poisoned whom they love. 2. If Pompey, when he was sick, had died in Naples, he would not have been engaged in a war with his father-in-law ; he had not taken up arms vithout preparatiom (imparatus). 3. The best things we do are painful, and the exercise of them griev ous, ifthey are continued without intermissiom.

4. He finished the business vithout staying longer. 5. They went off without observing that they were closely watched (intentiùs observari).

Let it be observed that where the latter clause is emphatical, the verb should be used instead of the participle.

6. He walks through the garden, without admirìng the sweetness of the lilies and roses, the beautiful order of the walks, and the melodious singing of the birds. (nec tamen.)

IVVithout, before a verb, may be expressed by the relative

qui, quæ, quod, by quin, or by an ablative absolute; as, He does nothing without consulting yvu : Nihil agit quin te consulat, or te inconsulto.

1. Since my father does nothing great or small without communicating it to me, why should he conceal this from me ?

2. I cannot read Tully concerning old age; concerning friendship; his offices ; or his Tusculan questions, without almost adoring that divinely-inspired breast.

3. It is a miserable thing to die before one's time. What time, I pray (quod tandem tempus)? That of nature ? Why, nature, for her part, gave you the usé of life, as of so much money (tanquam pecu7iia), without setting any day of payment.

Observe, that where there is a neuter adjective or pronoun, especially when followed by quo, it is better, for the sake of perspicuity, to use opus, with the nominative; or, as some grammarians have it, opus must become an adjective ; as,

He has need of what he enjoys: Id ei opus est, quo fruitur. It would not be so well to say, opus est eo quo, because they might be taken for the masculine.

1. You have no need of that which I have need of, whilst you are contented with your own condition ; and even superfluities are become necessary to me.

2. He has need qf that very thing which Hannibal and many other generals used in the midst ofthe greatest dnngers, and in every engagement, which they call presence of mind animi consilium).

We say that the verb sum is followed by a genitive or an ablative when it serves to denote a quality, praise and blame, &c.; but it is only when there is an adjective added to the substantive ; as, That lady is of a remarkable beauty ;

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