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VIII.-Physical Geography. 1. How does a river increasó in size? Why do some flow quicker than others ?
2. What happens when a glass of cold water is brought into a warm room? Explain the reason of what takes place.
3. What is the great watershed of the north of England, and what rivers flow from it? Illustrate by a map.
4. Name some of the different winds that blow at certain seasons in some parts of the world.
5. How is the atmosphere composed, and how does the air at the top of mountains differ from that at the bottom ? 6. Explain what is meant by a fake of snow,
and illustrate by drawings.
1. Draw a river, marking all its different parts.
2. Account for the frost on a window-pane after a cold night.
3. How is dew formed ?
6. How is a spring fed ? What kind of springs are most useful, and why?
7. Is there any difference in the upper, middle, and lower courses of a river? If so, state what difference, and why.
1st Stage (Three Sets of Papers).
1. Define zone, tropic, equator, axis, latitude, and longitude.
2. What is dew, and what objects attract dew most? Why is there more dew on grass than stones ?
3. What is snow ? Give diagrams to show the forms which snowflakes take.
4. Define clearly a river basin, and what is meant by the basin of the River Thames or Severn. Draw a map to illustrate your answer.
5. Explain condensation and evaporation, and give illustrations of them,
6. State the composition of the air. Why does the air in a room full of people become poisonous ?
7. Define delta, cataract, estuary, current, portage, watershed, waterspout, cascade.
8. Explain trade-winds, land and sea breezes, simoom, sirocco, tornado, monsoon, hurricane, whirlwind.
9. Explain the following : Perennial springs, artesian wells, petrifying springs.
10. Name some of the chief mineral springs in England.
2nd Stage (Three Sets of Papers).
1. How have we learnt anything as to the bottom of the ocean, and what knowledge have we now of its contents and depths ?
2. How is the saltness of the ocean caused ? What is said to be the use of such saltness ? Is the ocean equally salt in all parts? Give reasons for your answer.
3. What is meant by the land being wasted by the ocean ? How is this caused ? Is the land on the east and west coasts equally affected ? 4. How are tides caused ?
1. Where does sea water get its saltness from ? Mention any portions of the ocean that are salter than others, and say why they are so.
2. What are the waves, and how do they rise ?
3. Describe the action of waves upon the beach, and account for the existence of round pebbles, belts of sand, and caverns along the sea-shore.
4. Why is the sea encroaching upon the lands in some parts and going backwards in others ?
5. Describe the course of the Gulf Stream, and say what effect it has upon the west coast of Europe.
6. How do currents arise in the sea ? Say why an iceberg might be advancing in one direction and a log of wood in another in the same piece of water.
7. Describe briefly the origin of tides, and say why they will be smaller in the Mediterranean Sea than in the Bristol Channel.
8. What are sounding and dredging, and why are they resorted to ?
1. What proportion does the water on the globe bear to the land ? How many oceans are there ? Compare their sizes.
2. The waters of the ocean are always in motion. What are these motions ? The surface water may drift in one direction, and a current underneath may flow in the opposite direction; how could you show this ? What causes the surface drift?
3. Give instances of parts of England where the land is gaining on the sea, and where the sea is gaining on the land. Mention any places which have disappeared from this last cause.
4. How do we learn anything about the bottom of the sea ? Of what use is this knowledge ?
5. Explain high tide, low tide, neap tide, and spring tide. Where are tides the highest, and why?
6. What is the bed of the ocean? If you could see the bed of the Atlantic what appearance would it present ?
7. What makes salt water heavier than fresh? Why does the sea never overflow though all the rivers run into it ?
3rd Stage (Three Sets of Papers).
1. How do we know that the earth is round ? If a person affirmed the earth was flat how would you try to prove to him that he was wrong?
2. Explain rotation, axis, pole, revolution, orbit.
3. How are days and nights caused, and why are the days longer in summer than in winter ?
4. Draw a diagram showing how the seasons are caused.
5. "The moon is a satellite, and the nearest of the heavenly bodies.” Explain the meaning of this statement.
6. How do we know that the moon always presents the same face to us ?
7. Show by diagrams the arrangement of stars in the Great Bear. Of what use is this constellation ?
1. If you look at the North Star some clear dark night, and then notice its position several hours later, you will find it in a different part of the sky. Explain this.
2. Do the moon and stars shine by day? If so, why do you not see them ?
3. Explain these terms, equinox, solstice, orbit, tropics.
4. Why are the seasons not of the same length ? If the earth is nearest the sun in winter why is the weather coldest ?
5. How are the dark shady parts on the moon's surface caused ?
6. Draw a diagram explaining the moon's position in regard to the earth at new moon, first quarter, full moon, and last quarter.
7. What do you mean by the planetary or solar system? Give the names of the planets in their proper order, beginning with the one nearest the sun.
1. Explain how it is that the mountains and valleys on the earth's surface do not alter its general globular form.
2. Draw a diagram showing how day and night are produced.
3. If the earth revolved round the sun with its poles due north and south what effect would this have on the days, nights, and seasons ? And why?
4. “At the equator the days and nights are always 12 hours long, but at the poles the year is made up of but one day and one night, each lasting six months.” Explain this.
5. Explain why, when it is midsummer in England, it is winter in New Zealand.
6. How is it we always see the same side of the moon ? Is it possible for us to see the other side ?
7. “The moon has two motions which occupy the same length of time.” What are these motions ?
IX.-Botany. 1. What does Botany teach you ? What do you include under the term plant?
2. What are annuals, biennials, and perennials ? Give an example of each.
3. Describe briefly in their proper order the principal parts of a perfect plant, giving, with each part, the name of some plant of which that part is used for food.
4. Draw an example of each of these kind of leaves, and state to what plants it belongs: Elliptical, rotundate, reniform, lyrate, and digitate.
5. What are stipules, spines, and tendrils, and what are their
6. What is the calyx, corolla, stamen, and pistil of flowers ? What is the use of each ?
7. What is the fruit of a plant? From what part of the plant is it produced ?
1. How can we tell the age of an ordinary English forest tree after it has been cut down?
2. Why does a tree die when its bark is removed ?
3. What is meant by the cells of plants ? What do these cells contain, and of what use are they?
4. What sorts of food do plants need ? How do they take their food in ?
5. “Without plants in the world all animals would sooner or later die." Why is this?
6. What does a plant do by means of its root ?
7. Name and sketch (if possible) the separate parts of a flower, in their proper order, stating the use of each.
1. If you soak a bean in water till it begins to sprout" what takes place ?
2. How does a grain of wheat differ in structure from a bean?
3. What do you mean by germination ? What are the requisites for the process ?
4. What are spores ? What kind of plants are propagated by means of them?
5. Name a common example of a fern, a moss, and a lichen.
6. Give the names of the different parts of the plants which are eaten under the name of fruit in the fig, pineapple, strawberry, apple, and gooseberry.
7. From what part or parts of a plant is the fruit formed ?
2. Of what use is it to cook food? What are the chief things to be observed in cooking ?
3. How would you proceed to roast a leg of mutton, or a joint of meat, before the fire ?
4. A girl's dress is worn out under the arms, pulled out of the gathers, and has a slit in the skirt ? How must each of these places be mended ?
5. Give the names of six materials and tho articles of clothing that are made out of them.
6. Of what use are clothes? What parts of the body should be most protected, and why?
1. Why, to be healthy, must you live in rooms well ventilated ?
2. How does dirt on the body, in our clothes, and in our houses, do us mischief ?
3. How does a fire, or even an open fire-place, tend to keep a room healthy? Why should fire-places never be closed up in summer time?
4. What use would you make of sand, bath-brick, turpentine, sweet oil, soft soap, and whiting in cleaning?
5. How would you proceed to put the clothes "into steep the night before the wash, and why would you do this? do you not steep woollen things ?
6. What articles require simply“mangling,” what "ironing,” and what “starching" before they are used again, and why?
1. Of what úse is bathing? Why do you use soap when
you wash yourself?
2. Give a few simple rules as to what you should do, or should not do, in order to keep well ?
3. If there is fever in the house, what must you do to prevent it spreading ?
4. If you have one or two little children to take care of for an afternoon, tell me a few things you may do to keep them cheerful, occupied, and amused ?
5. Why is it cheaper to buy necessary things in large rather than in small quantities, and with ready money?
6. A girl out at service has 3s. 6d. per week. What ought she to do with this money? How much should she try to save, and where should she place her savings to be secure and easily got at when required ?