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in use made into sets after the plan of other papers, le of the questions have been actually set in examinastandards they are arranged under. one or two instances I have endeavoured to steer clear mable” questions. It is an injustice to both teacher and

ire, say, Standard III. to take down and work a long on of money going up to tens of millions and containing

ch ciphers; but this not only has been, but is some2. True, a child is no worse for being able to do this, not be required for a "pass.” No child who can only um work of his standard is safe, and therefore every

tries to work up all his children as far beyond the aments as he can, but how far an inspector may think

go, in order to thoroughly test a year's work, is one Fefects of the present system of examination. Any wever, requiring more than is asked for in the hardest Here given may fairly be called unreasonable. "I cannot understand how my children did so badly” is ord after the inspector's report arrives ; and in many Me incomprehensible why good steady work should

poor results. But in sadly too many instances the ng as he is at high pressure, has forgotten or neglected

means of producing good results. Far more children

Tenowing how to place their work before the inspector nowing how to do it all, simply because they have not ly practised in examinations similar to the one the

be expected to give. The inspectors themselves ut out the necessity of constantly giving thorough

roughout the school in order to prepare for the

the Educational Blue-Book, 1874-5, says :vults would certainly be attained by many good were they to hold, during the year, regular and zaminations on the standard work. Very good men elves to great disadvantage, compared with even mm, by the neglect of this practice. It does not seem

realised that one great secret of thorough and PREFACE.

WHENEVER a new book is placed before the public there ought always to be a sufficient raison d'être for its appearance.

If the ground it covers has been already occupied, the more necessary is it that the author should clearly lay his claims for recognition before the constituents he is addressing. But when a work, new in its plan, its matter, and its arrangement, and which claims to supply a want and to serve a really useful purpose, makes its appearance, little apology is necessary.

This little work, which I have had in contemplation for many years, and the materials for which I have been collecting, far and wide, for some time, will at once recommend itself to the teachers of our Public Elementary Schools. Its use will be twofold :1. To show the general scope and extent of the standard examina

tions under the New Code (Art. 28). 2. To supply teachers with a sufficient number of independent

“tests” previous to sending their pupils in for examination. First. It is a notorious fact that the standard of examination varies with every inspector, and as long as Art. 28 allows such latitude to an examiner, and payment for resultswhat a misnomer ! as every hard-worked schoolmaster too well knows--remains as the measure by which the indispensable £ s. d. is doled out, so long must it be necessary for a teacher to work upon lines laid down by an authority against which he is powerless to offer any resistance.

To show how far a teacher's work may extend, and what his pupils may be expected to do under a reasonable examiner, and with what may be called a “fair” examination, is what I have here attempted. Most of the papers are exactly as they have been given ; a few of them are compilations from questions, set here and there, and for

convenience in use made into sets after the plan of other papers, but the whole of the questions have been actually set in examinations in the standards they are arranged under.

Except in one or two instances I have endeavoured to steer clear of "unreasonable” questions. It is an injustice to both teacher and pupil to require, say, Standard III. to take down and work a long sum in addition of money going up to tens

millions and containing numerous catch ciphers ; but this not only has been, but is sometimes yet given. True, a child is no worse for being able to do this, but it should not be required for a “pass.” No child who can only do the minimum work of his standard is safe, and therefore every good teacher tries to work up all his children as far beyond the simple requirements as he can, but how far an inspector may think it necessary to go, in order to thoroughly test a year's work, is one of the chief defects of the present system of examination. Any inspection, however, requiring more than is asked for in the hardest of the papers here given may fairly be called unreasonable.

Secondly.—I cannot understand how my children did so badly” is constantly heard after the inspector's report arrives ; and in many cases it is quite incomprehensible why good steady work should produce such poor results. But in sadly too many instances the teacher, working as he is at high pressure, has forgotten or neglected one of the chief means of producing good results. Par more children fail through not knowing how to place their work before the inspector than from not knowing how to do it all, simply because they have not been sufficiently practised in examinations similar to the one the inspector may be expected to give. The inspectors themselves frequently point out the necessity of constantly giving thorough examinations throughout the school in order to prepare for the examination.

Mr. Jolly, in the Educational Blue-Book, 1874-5, says : “ Higher results would certainly be attained by many good

teachers, were they to hold, during the year, regular and frequent examinations on the standard work. Very good men put themselves to great disadvantage, compared with even inferior men, by the neglect of this practice. It does not seem sufficiently realised that one great secret of thorough and

PREFACE.

WHENEVER a new book is placed before the public there ought always to be a sufficient raison d'être for its appearance.

If the ground it covers has been already occupied, the more necessary is it that the author should clearly lay his claims for recognition before the constituents he is addressing. But when a work, new in its plan, its matter, and its arrangement, and which claims to supply a want and to serve a really useful purpose, makes its appearance, little apology is necessary.

This little work, which I have had in contemplation for many years, and the materials for which I have been collecting, far and wide, for some time, will at once recommend itself to the teachers of our Public Elementary Schools. Its use will be twofold :1. To show the general scope and extent of the standard examina

tions under the New Code (Art. 28). 2. To supply teachers with a sufficient number of independent

"tests” previous to sending their pupils in for examination. First.—It is a notorious fact that the standard of examination varies with every inspector, and as long as Art. 28 allows such latitude to an examiner, and payment for resultswhat a misnomer ! as every hard-worked schoolmaster too well knows-remains as the measure by which the indispensable £ $. d. is doled out, so long must it be necessary for a teacher to work upon lines laid down by an authority against which he is powerless to offer any resistance.

To show how far a teacher's work may extend, and what his pupils may be expected to do under a reasonable examiner, and with what may be called a "fair" examination, is what I have here attempted. Most of the papers are exactly as they have been given ; a few of them are compilations from questions, set here and there, and for

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