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ASSEMBLY'S ANNOTATIONS. (Third Edition, fol. 1657). “The four angels, four governors of the Mahomedans.—Horsemen. The Turk's army consisteth mostly of such.'
HAAK's DUTCH ANNOTATIONS, (fol. 1657, first published in 1637.) • By these four angels is, for the most part, by all Expositors, understood that sort of the Mahomedans which chiefly consists in four nations which subdued all others under them, Arabians, Saracens, Tartars, and Turks.'
BRENIUS, in his Notes on the Apocalypse. (fol. 1666.) The woe in the sixth Trumpet brings the Turks and the kings and people confederate with them, who bring to an end the empire which the Romans had held in the east.'
151. DES MARETS, a celebrated divine of the Reformed Church, in his Notes on the Bible, (fol. Vol. II. 1669, p. 192. * By these four angels, interpreters commonly understand the evil spirits which govern the Mahomedan sect.' He then specially numbers the Tartars and Turks—and the help it incidentally gave to the Reformation.
CALovius, (fol. 1676.) 'It is commonly explained of Mahomedanism, and to that it curiously agrees. We give sentence with those who expound it of the Turks of the Ottoman family,' and he names LUTHER, OSIANDER, WINCKELMAN, FLACIUS, WOLTER, CRAMER, NICOLAI, GERHARD, DOLINGIUS AND DURFELD ; as well as Piscator, Pareus, Forbesius, RICCARDUS and CARTESIUS, ás taking this view.
Goodwin, a Puritan divine, (who died in 1679,) in his Exposition of the Revelation, According to all the characters and footprints which we find in the Turkish stones, no prophecy doth or can more punctually describe any nation or event, than this doth the Turks, and their irruption upon the Eastern Empire.' (Works, Vol. II. p. 54.)
Bishop Lloyd, (about 1680.) Burnet says of him, that he explains • The four angels bound in the river Euphrates, of four Turkish captains of forces.' DURHAM, an eminent Scotch divine. (4to. 1680.)
These agree well with the Turks.' p. 385, 386, 529, 530, 532.
MORE, in his Exposition of the Apocalypse, (4to. 1680.) explains this Trumpet. Let loose the Turks upon the idolatrous empire-that the Turks are here meant, is plain.' p. 306.
JURIEU, a French Protestant divine, in his work on the accomplishment of prophecy, (8vo. 1687.) . The first woe is the birth of the Saracen empire and the religion of Mahomet. The second blow is the irruptions of the Turks. The Turks pressed even into the very heart of the fourth monarchy, and laid it desolate, and they have established their empire in one of its capital cities.' p. 71-73.
POOLE. (Annotations, fol. 1688.) By these four angels or instruments of God to execute his vengeance, I find the most valuable interpreters understanding the Turks, considered as distinct from the Saracens, and succeeding them.'
CRESS ENER, in his judgments of God upon the Roman Church. (4to. 1689.) * The Saracen and Turkish empires must necessarily be the first and second woe.' p. 13. See also p. 26, 246.
MARCKIUS. (4to. 1689.) 'It represents to us Mahomedanism, as it was most widely diffused, first by the Saracens, and then by the Turks and Tartars.' p. 344. CLARKE, (Samuel) fol. 1690. Angels.
“The instruments employed by God in this work, particularly the four Turkish Tetrarchs, or roots of Turks.'
BEVERLEY. Scripture line of Time, 4to. 1692.
P. 149. 'I come now to the second woe, or of the Turkish horsemen, and that most notorious period they made by taking Constantinople, styled as we have proved, killing the third part of men, in 1453.
P. 165. •Then the second woe shall pass away, and Mahomedanism, whatever existence it may have on the world, shall no longer remain the woe of the Christian world, (i.e. 1697); although Euphrates may yet continue a river, till at the sixth vial it is dried up, yet it shall not so overflow as hitherto it hath done.'
[A singular extract, since 1697, was the date which Faber even now assigns for the close of the woe, and this was written in 1684.]
Petto, (1693, “the Revelation Unveiled.') “The Euphrates, Rev. ix. 14, referreth to the Turks.'
WAPLE, (4to. 1694.) v. 18. 'The Holy Ghost represents the Turkish army by those warlike instruments, which were invented, about the time of their being let loose on the empire.' p. 162.
Sylveira, (a learned Roman Catholic) in his Commentary (2 vol. fol. Third Edition, 1700.) • The Mahomedan sect stirred up a great war against the Church, and plundered many souls. Thus in the sacred revelation are set out heresies, as also that pestilent Mahomedan sect, and then under the second woe, come to be understood strokes and calamities, which should take place after the heresies in the Church, to the time of Antichrist for some part of the earth, as for Africa or Asia, in which the most impure sect of the Mahometans rule, or for some kingdom or province, as for Egypt, which is fallen from the Catholic faith, and sunk in Mahomedan errors.' p. 521.
Burkitt, (fol. 1704.) v. 16, 17. St. John proceeds in describing this vast army of Turks and Arabians, that with incredible swiftness did overrun and ruin the Eastern Churches-cruel devastation and destruction were occasioned by the Turks and Mahometans.
VITRINGA, in his Exposition, (4to. 1705,) ' generally there is a much greater consent and agreement among interpreters here, than in other parts of the prophecy. For the most see here treated of the Saracens, and especially the Turks, whom God used as the executioners of his vengeance on the Eastern Roman Empire.'
Whiston, in his Essay on the Revelation, (4to. 1706) says, • In this sixth Trumpet we have a most lively description of the Turks, and of the miseries they have brought upon Europe, and each circumstance does so concur to decypher that empire, that he must be very unwilling to believe any thing of this nature that can deny, I had almost said that can doubt of it.'
HENRY, (died 1714,) v. 16. “In general it tells us the armies of the Mahometan empire should be vastly great.'
Wells, (an English divine,) · Whereas divine providence has hitherto saw fit not to suffer the Turks to break into the eastern part of the Roman Empire, so as to extend and settle their dominions on the West side of the River Euphrates now, permitted to extend their dominion,' &c. Paraphrase, Vol. VI. p. 65. 1717.
DAUBUZ, in his perpetual Commentary, (fol. 1720.) “The Ottomans are indeed the angels who have performed this great work, who from very low beginnings passed on into Christendom, and ruined the Grecian Empire.' p. 437.
SIR ISAAC NEWTON. In his Observations on the Apocalypse, (4to. 1733,) says, “The sixth Trumpet sounded to the wars, &c. and by these conquests the empire of the Turks was set up, as may be known by the extent thereof.'
Bishop CLAYTON, in his Dissertation on Prophecy, (8vo. 1749,) applies the fifth and sixth Trumpets to the Mahomedans. p. 106.
MICHAELIS, the celebrated German professor, in his Introduction to the New Testament, (first published in 1750,) says, ' Rev. ix. 13–17, contains a description which may very well be applied to the irruption of the Saracens, the Turks, and the Tartars.' Chap. xxxiii. Sect. 7.
WALMESLEY (a Roman Catholic Bishop,) first published in 1772, ' If we may be allowed to conjecture from the present situation of empires in Asia, which however may alter, the four great powers in question may be the Turks, whose dominion extend over the Euphrates and beyond the Tigris, the Persians, Moguls, Chinese,' &c. p. 323. I quote it, as showing that in a future fulfilment, he thought the Turks were here included.
J. M—D ON THE REVELATION. (8vo. 1787.) • From Othman the descent of the Ottoman Emperors is counted. This was the power obtained for the utter subversion of the Eastern Roman Empire, and loosed for the slaying of the third part of men.'
GREEK COMMENTARY, fol. by a Greek Christian, printed at Leipsic, July 1796.
P. 267. He shows by these (fire, and smoke, and brimstone,) the arms invented at this time of far-darting artillery, and the fiery dust manufactured from brimstone.'
P. 347. At that time when the angel restrained the four illworking angels, the nations which those angels denote were bound by the pious kingdom, and afterwards were loosed, and the Turks rushed forth as from the river Euphrates and Persia, and soon passed over from the east into the west. Now at the time (of this vial) the way of other good kings is prepared.
* The river Euphrates was a type of a multitude of unbelieving nations. The water signifies the people, and army, and multitude of these unbelieving nations which the river denotes. The drying of the water manifests the failure and want (ελλειψιν και στερησιν) of those nations.'
NEWCOME, Abp. (1796,) v. “There may be a reference to the numerous armies of the Turks with which they make their hostile expeditions, or to the vast bodies of men which composed their original migrations.'
GIBERT, in a French Exposition, (12mo. 1796,) says · La Denomination des quatre anges est applicable aux Turcs a divers egards.' p. 110.
WOODHOUSE, in his translation of the Apocalypse. (8vo. 1805,) says, “In this application of the sixth Trumpet, I am at no great distance from the general notion of modern interpreters, for almost all of them apply the sixth Trumpet to the devastation of the Turks, or of the Tartars, who were also Mahometans. p. 267.
JOHNSTON, a Scotch minister in his Commentary, (8vo. 1807,) • The great events predicted under this Trumpet, were the long and destructive wars brought upon the Roman Empire by the Turks, the rise and progress of the Mahomedan religion, and the continuance of the Church of Rome after all these calamities in idolatry,' &c. p. 315, 316.
ALLWOOD, in the Warburton Lectures, (8vo. 1815,) · All these