"men, and both the disgrace and the bane of civF*c lized society.

"From the company of the smugglers we* "longed to separate, the more because they *c eagerly solicited our stay, promising to-conduct "us fasely across the mountains, and to desend: u our persons and properties- against robbers find u assassins; but we thought it a piece of good "fortune, that our most valuable property, as"we shewed to them, consisted in our swords ,l and pistols. Having called our St. Marino ° host, we paid him for his wine and his faufage;. ** (prosciutti); and were pleased to sind, that "contrary to our univerfal experience of Italian, u landlords, he was uncommonly thankful for a, "very moderate gratisication; a singularity ° which, though it probably proceeded from his "being little converfant with English and othec. f opulent travellers, we treasured with delight,. *1 as a conspicuous proof of Republican * virtue*


* "The words * Republican virtue' must sound harsh. "to modern ears, so ihamefully has a. wild Democracy 0 abused and profaned the name of Republick. Yer, ac"cording toMachiavelliand Montesquieu, and their mat "ter Aristotle, Republicks require more virtue than Mo"narchies, because in Republicks the Citizens make laws M to govern themselves, whereas in Monarchies the sub

'** lefibj

*• that had escaped pure and unsullied From the "contagion of those worthless guests; with whom "the nature of his trade condemned him often to "associate.

"About two o'clock in the afternoon, we left u the Bofgo to climb up to the Citta, carrying "our swords in our right hands; a precaution "which the company we had just left warranted ** in this modern Republick, but which, as Thu"cydides informs Us in his proem, would have "exposed us to be btanded with the appellation "of Barbarians in the Republicks of Antient M Greece. Before we had reached the summit of "the hill, the cloud had dispersed, the sun shone "bright} we breathed a purer air, and the clear "light which displayed the city and territory of "St. Marino, was heightened by contrast with the "thick gloom which involved the circumjacent "plains. Transported with the contemplation "of a landscape which seemed so admirably to "accord with the political state of the mountain,

** jects are compelled to obey the laws made by the Prince. * In Republican Governments, therefore, the Citizens "ought, in the words of Aristotle, and of a still higher "authority, • to be a law unto themselves.' How sew "Nations therefore are qualified, in modern times, for "living happily under a Republick; and least of all, that "Nation which has sliewn itself the least virtuous of all."

T 2 "a bright *

"a bright gem of liberty amidst the darkness of "Italian servitude, we clambered cheerfully over "the precipices, never reflecting that as there "was not any place of reception for strangers in "the Citta, we might possibly be exposed to the "alternative of fleeping in the streets, or return"ing to the Caravansera, crouded with smugglers, "whose intoxication might exasperate their na. "tural serocity. From all our past remarks, we "had concluded that the vice of drunkenness was "abominated even by the lowest classes of the "Italians. We dreaded their fury and their knives "in this unusual state of mind; but amidst all our "terrors could not forbear philosophising* on "what we had seen, and conjecturing, from the "tumultuous merriment and drunken debauchery u of the smugglers, that the famed sobriety of the *• Italian Nation is an artificial virtue arising from. *• situation and accident, not depending on tem** perament, or resulting from character. Drink"ing is the vice of men whose lives are chequered f* by vicissitudes of toil and ease, of danger and

* "This word requires an apology; for the facred name *'* of Philofophy has been as shamefully polluted in modern "times, by Sophists and Sceptics, as the word Republick )• by Madmen and Levellers. The present generation "must pass away, before either of these terms can resume "its pristine and native honours."



■" security. It is the vice of soldiers, mariners, "and huntsmen; of those who exercise boisterous "occupations, or pursue dangerous amusements; "and if the modern Italians are less addicted to "excess in wine than the Greeks and Romans in u antient, or the English and Germans in modern ** times, their temperance may fairly be ascribed "to the indolent monotony of their listless lives'; "which, -being never exhausted by fatigue, can ** never be gladdened by repose; and being never "agitated by the terrors of danger, can never be ** transported by the joys of deliverance.

"From these airy speculations, by which we' ** fancied that we stripped Italy of what -some "travellers have too hastily concluded to be the1 "only virtue 'which she has left, we were a awakened by the appearance of a venerable "person, in a bag wig and sword, cautiously u leading his Bourrique * down the precipice. "He returned our falute with an air of courtesy "bespeaking such affability, that we quickly "entered into converfation with him, and disu covered to our surprize and joy, that we-were "in company with a very respectable personage, "and one whom Mr. Addison has dignified with i" the appellation of * the fourth man in the State.'

-' * Ass. ;'

T 3 * The ♦* The stipendiary physician of St. Marino (for ° this was the person with whom we were con-; "versing) told us, that we might be accommo"dated with good lodging in the Convent of "Capuchins; and as we were strangers, that he "would return, shew us the house, and present us "to Father Bonelli. We expressed our unwil"lingness to give him the trouble of again as"cending the hill; but of this trouble the deeply., ** wrinkled mountaineer made light, and we c* yielded to his propofal with only apparent res* luctance; since, to the indelicacy of introducing ** ourselves, we preserred the introduction of a ** man whom we had even casually met with on ** the road. To the Convent we were admitted f * by a state servente, or lay friar, and conducted "to the Padre Maejiro, the Prior Bonelli, a man "sixty years old, and, as we were told by the "Physician, descended from one of the noblest "families in the Commonwealth. Having re"ceived and returned such compliments as arc "held indispenfable in this ceremonious country, ^ the Prior conducted us above stairs, and shewed "us two clean and comfortable chambers, which "he faid we might command, while we deigned to ** honour the Republick (such were his expressions) f* with the favour of our residence. As to our *' entertainment, he faid we might, as best pleased


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