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water with sharp stakes: the remains of these are to be seen to this day, apparently about the thickness of a man's thigh, and being cased with lead, remain fixed immovably in the bottom of the river. This being perceived and avoided by the Romans, the barbarians, not able to stand the shock of the legions, hid themselves in the woods, whence they grievously galled the Romans with repeated sallies. In the mean time, the strong city of Trinovantum, with its commander Andro- London. geus, surrendered to Cæsar, giving him forty hostages. Many other cities, following their example, made a treaty with the Romans. By their assistance, Cæsar at length, with much difficulty, took Cassibellaun's town, situated between two marshes, fortified by the adjacent woods, and plentifully furnished with all necessaries. After this Cæsar returned into Gaul, but he had no sooner put his legions into winter-quarters, than he was suddenly beset and distracted with wars and tumults raised against him on every side.
CHAP. III.—CLAUDIUS, THE SECOND OF THE ROMANS WHO
CAME INTO BRITAIN, BROUGHT THE ISLANDS ORCADES INTO
In the year of Rome 798, Claudius, fourth emperor A.D. 46. from Augustus, being desirous to approve himself a bene- vades Bri ficial prince to the republic, and eagerly bent upon war and conquest, undertook an expedition into Britain, which seemed to be stirred up to rebellion by the refusal of the Romans to give up certain deserters. He was the only one, either before or after Julius Cæsar, who had dared to land upon the island; yet, within a very few days, without any fight or bloodshed, the greatest part of the island was surrendered into his hands. He also added to the Roman empire the Orcades, which lie in the ocean beyond Orcades.
Romano adjecit imperio, ac sexto quam profectus erat mense Romam rediit, filioque suo Britannici, nomen imposuit. Hoc autem bellum quarto imperii sui anno complevit, qui est annus ab incarnatione Domini quadragesimus sextus; quo etiam anno fames gravissima per Syriam facta est, quæ in Actibus Apostolorum per prophetam A gabum prædicta esse memoratur. Ab eodem Claudio Vespasianus, qui post Neronem imperavit, in Britanniam missus, etiam Vectam insulam, Britanniæ proximam a meridie, Romanorum ditioni subjugavit ; quæ habet ab oriente in occasum triginta circiter millia passuum, ab austro in boream duodecim, in orientalibus suis partibus mari sex millium, in occidentalibus trium, a meridiano Britanniæ litore distans. Succedens autem Claudio in imperium Nero nihil omnino in re militari ausus est ; unde, inter alia Romani regni detrimenta innumera, Britanniam pene amisit, nam duo sub eo nobilissima oppida illic capta atque subversa sunt.
CAP. IV.—UT LUCIUS BRITANNORUM REX, MISSIS AD ELEU
THERUM PAPAM LITERIS, CHRISTIANUM SE FIERI PETIERIT.
Anno ab incarnatione Domini centesimo quinquagesimo sexto, Marcus Antoninus Verus, decimus quartus ab Augusto, regnum cum Aurelio Commodo fratre suscepit; quorum temporibus cum Eleutherus vir sanctus pontificatui Romanæ ecclesiæ præesset, misit ad eum Lucius Britanniarum rex epistolam, obsecrans ut per ejus mandatum Christianus efficeretur, et mox effectum piæ postulationis consecutus est; susceptamque fidem Britanni usque in tempora Diocletiani principis inviolatam integramque quieta in pace servabant.
Britain, and then returning to Rome the sixth month after his departure, he gave his son the title of Britannicus. This war he concluded in the fourth year of his empire, which is the forty-sixth from the incarnation of our Lord. In which year there happened a most grievous famine in Syria, which, in the Acts of the Apostles, is recorded to have been foretold by the prophet Agabus. Vespasian, who was emperor after Nero, being sent into Britain by the same Claudius, brought also under the Roman dominion the Isle of Wight, which is next to Isle of
Wight. Britain on the south, and is about thirty miles in length from east to west, and twelve from north to south; being six miles distant from the southern coast of Britain at the east end, and three only at the west. Nero, succeeding Nero. Claudius in the empire, attempted nothing in martial affairs; and therefore among other innumerable detriments brought upon the Roman state, he almost lost Britain; for under him two most noble towns were there taken and destroyed.
CHAP. IV.-LUCIUS, KING OF BRITAIN, WRITING TO POPE
ELEUTHERUS, DESIRES TO BE MADE A CHRISTIAN.
In the year of our Lord's incarnation 156, Marcus A. D. !<• Antoninus Verus, the fourteenth from Augustus, was braces
Christianity. made emperor, together with his brother, Aurelius Commodus. In their time, whilst Eleutherus, a holy man, presided over the Roman church, Lucius, king of the Britons, sent a letter to him, entreating, that by his command he might be made a Christian. obtained the object of his pious request, and the Britons preserved the faith, which they had received, uncorrupted and entire, in peace and tranquillity until the time of the Emperor Diocletian.
CAP. V.-UT SEVERUS RECEPTAM BRITANNIÆ PARTEM VALLO
A CETERA DISTINXERIT.
Anno ab incarnatione Domini centesimo octogesimo nono, Severus, genere Afer, Tripolitanus, ab oppido Lepti, decimus septimus ab Augusto, imperium adeptus, decem et septem annis tenuit. Hic natura sævus, multis semper bellis lacessitus, fortissime quidem rempublicam sed laboriosissime rexit. Victor ergo civilium bellorum, quæ ei gravissima occurrerant, in Britannias defectu pene omnium sociorum trahitur, ubi magnis gravibusque proeliis sæpe gestis, receptam partem insulæ a ceteris indomitis gentibus, non muro, ut quidam æstimant, sed vallo distinguendam putavit. Murus etenim de lapidibus, vallum vero, quo ad repellendam vim hostium castra muniuntur, fit de cespitibus, quibus circumcisis e terra, velut murus exstruitur altus supra terram, ita ut in ante sit fossa, de qua levati sunt cespites, supra quam sudes de lignis fortissimis præfiguntur. Itaque Severus magnam fossam firmissimumque vallum, crebris insuper turribus communitum, a mari ad mare duxit ; ibique apud Eboracum oppidum morbo obiit. Reliquit duos filios, Bassianum et Getam; quorum Geta hostis publicus judicatus interiit, Bassianus, Antonini cognomine assumpto, regno potitus est.
CAP. VI.DE IMPERIO DIOCLETIANI, ET UT CHRISTIANOS
ANNO incarnationis Dominicæ ducentesimo octogesimo sexto, Diocletianus, tricesimus tertius ab Augusto, Imperator ab exercitu electus, annis viginti fuit, Maximianumque cognomento Herculium socium creavit
CHAP. V.-HOW THE EMPEROR SEVERUS DIVIDED THAT
PART OF BRITAIN WHICH HE SUBDUED, FROM THE REST BY
In the year of our Lord 189, Severus, an African, Severus. born at Leptis, in the province of Tripolis, received the imperial purple. He was the seventeenth from Augustus, and reigned seventeen years. Being naturally stern, and engaged in many wars, he governed the state vigorously, but with much trouble. Having been victorious in all the grievous civil wars which happened in his time, he was drawn into Britain by the revolt of almost all the confederate tribes; and, after many great and dangerous battles, he thought fit to divide that part of the island, which he had recovered from the other unconquered nations, not with a wall, as some imagine, but with a rampart. For a wall is made of stones, but a rampart, with which camps are fortified to repel the assaults of enemies, is made of sods, cut out of the earth, and raised above the ground all round like a wall, having in front of it the ditch whence the sods were taken, and strong stakes of wood fixed upon its top. Thus Severus drew a great ditch and strong rampart, fortified with several towers, from sea to sea; and was afterwards taken sick and died at York, leaving two Severus dies sons, Bassianus and Geta; of whom Geta died, adjudged Caracalla a public enemy; but Bassianus, having taken the
surname of Antoninus, obtained the empire.
CHAP. VI. TH
OF DIOCLETIAN, AND HOW HE
PERSECUTED THE CHRISTIANS.
In the year of our Lord's incarnation 286, Diocletian, A. D. 286. the thirty-third from Augustus, and chosen emperor by and Maxithe army, reigned twenty years, and created Maximian, surnamed Herculius, his colleague in the empire. In