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CHAP. XI.-HOW DURING THE REIGN OF HONORIUS, GRA
TIAN AND CONSTANTINE WERE CREATED TYRANTS IN BRI
TAIN; AND SOON AFTER
THE FORMER BRITAIN, AND THE LATTER IN GAUL.
In the year 407, Honorius, the younger son of Theodo- A.D. 407. sius, and the forty-fourth from Augustus, being emperor, two years before the invasion of Rome by Alaric, king of the Goths, when the nations of the Alani, Suevi, Vandals, and many others with them, having defeated the Franks and passed the Rhine, ravaged all Gaul, Gratianus Municeps was set up as tyrant and killed. In his place, Constantine, one of the meanest soldiers, only for his name's sake, and without any worth to recommend him, was chosen emperor. As soon as he had taken upon him the command, he passed over into France, where being often imposed upon by the barbarians with faithless treaties, he caused much injury to the Commonwealth. Whereupon Count Constantius, by the command of Honorius, marching into Gaul with an army, besieged him in the city of Arles, and put him to death. His son Constans, whom of a monk he had created Cæsar, was also put to death by his own Count Gerontius, at Vienne.
Rome was taken by the Goths, in the year from its foundation, 1164. Then the Romans ceased to rule in Britain, almost 470 years after Caius Julius Cæsar entered the island. They resided within the rampart, which, as we have mentioned, Severus made across the island, on the south side of it, as the cities, temples, bridges, and paved roads there made, testify to this day; but they had a right of dominion over the farther parts of Britain, as also over the islands that are beyond Britain.
CAP. XII.--UT BRITONES SCOTIS VASTATI PICTISQUE
ROMANORUM AUXILIA QUÆSIERINT, QUI SECUNDO VENIENTES MURUM TRANS INSULAM FECERINT; SED HOC CONFESTIM A PRÆFATIS HOSTIBUS INTERRUPTO, MAJORE SINT CALAMITATE DEPRESSI,
Exin Britannia in parte Britonum omni armato milite, militaribus copiis universis, tota floridæ juventutis alacritate, spoliata, quæ tyrannorum temeritate abducta nunquam ultra domum rediit, prædæ tantum patuit, utpote omnis bellici usus prorsus ignara ; denique subito duabus gentibus transmarinis vehementer sævis, Scotorum a circio, Pictorum ab aquilone, multos stupet gemitque per annos.
Transmarinas autem dicimus has gentes, non quod extra Britanniam essent positæ, sed quia a parte Britonum erant remotæ, duobus sinibus maris interjacentibus, quorum unus ab orientali mari, alter ab occidentali, Britanniæ terras longe lateque irrumpit, quamvis ad se invicem pertingere non possint. Orientalis habet in medio sui urbem Giudi; occidentalis supra se, hoc est, ad dexteram sui, habet urbem Alcluith, quod lingua eorum significat Petram Cluith,' est enim juxta fluvium nominis illius.
Ob harum ergo infestationem gentium Britones legatos Romam cum epistolis mittentes, lacrimosis precibus auxilia flagitabant, subjectionemque continuam, dummodo hostis imminens longius arceretur, promittebant. Quibus mox legio destinatur armata, quæ, ubi in insulam advecta et congressa est cum hostibus, magnam eorum multitudinem sternens, ceteros sociorum finibus expulit, eosque interim a dirissima depressione liberatos hortata est instruere inter duo maria trans insulam murum, qui
-THE BRITONS, BEING RAVAGED BY THE SCOTS AND PICTS, SOUGHT SUCCOUR FROM THE ROMANS, WHO, COMING A SECOND TIME, BUILT A WALL ACROSS THE ISLAND;
BUT THE BRITONS BEING AGAIN INVADED BY THE AFORESAID
ENEMIES, WERE REDUCED TO GREATER DISTRESS THAN BE
From that time, the south part of Britain, destitute A.D. 383. of armed soldiers, of martial stores, and of all its active and Scots. youth, which had been led away by the rashness of the A.D. 400. tyrants, never to return, was wholly exposed to rapine, as being totally ignorant of the use of weapons. Whereupon they suffered many years under two very savage foreign nations, the Scots from the west, and the Picts from the north. We call these foreign nations, not on account of their being seated out of Britain, but because they were remote from that part of it which was possessed by the Britons; two inlets of the sea lying betwixt them, one of which runs in far and broad into the land of Britain, from the Eastern Ocean, and the other from the Western, though they do not reach so as to touch one another. The eastern has in the midst of it the city Giudi. The western has on it, that is, on the right hand thereof, the city Alcluith, which in their language signifies the Rock Cluith, for it is close by the river of that name.
On account of the irruption of these nations, the A.D. 414. Britons sent messengers to Rome with letters in mournful manner, praying for succours, and promised perpetual subjection, provided that the impending enemy should be driven away. An armed legion was immediately sent them, which, arriving in the island, and engaging the enemy, slew a great multitude of them, drove the rest out of the territories of their allies, and having delivered them from their cruel oppressors, , advised them to build a wall between the two scas, across
arcendis hostibus posset esse præsidio; sicque domum cum triumpho magno reversa est. At insulani murum, quem jussi fuerant, non tam lapidibus quam cespitibus construentes, utpote nullum tanti operis artificem habentes, ad nihil utilem statuunt. Fecerunt autem eum inter duo freta vel sinus, de quibus diximus, maris, per millia passuum plurima; ut ubi aquarum munitio deerat, ibi præsidio valli fines suos ab hostium irruptione defenderent. Cujus operis ibidem facti, id est, valli latissimi et altissimi, usque hodie certissima vestigia cernere licet. Incipit autem duorum ferme millium spatio a monasterio Abercurnig ad occidentem, in loco qui sermone Pictorum Peanfahel, lingua autem Anglorum Penneltun, appellatur; et tendens contra occidentem terminatur juxta urbem Alcluith.
Verum priores inimici, ut Romanum militem abiisse conspexerant, mox advecti navibus irrumpunt terminos cæduntque omnia, et quasi maturam segetem obvia quæque metunt, calcant, transeunt; unde rursum mittuntur Romam legati, flebili voce auxilium implorantes, ne penitus misera patria deleretur, ne nomen Romanæ provinciæ, quod apud eos tam diu claruerat, exterarum gentium improbitate obrutum vilesceret. Rursum mittitur legio, quæ inopinata tempore autumni adveniens magnas hostium strages dedit eosque, qui evadere poterant, omnes trans maria fugavit, qui prius anniversarias prædas trans maria, nullo obsistente, cogere solebant. Tum Romani denunciavere Britonibus, non se ultra ob eorum defensionem tam laboriosis expeditionibus posse fatigari ; ipsos potius monent arma corripere et certandi cum hostibus studium subire, qui non aliam ob causam, quam si ipsi inertia solverentur, eis possent esse fortiores.
the island, that it might secure them, and keep off the enemy; and thus they returned home with great triumph. The islanders, raising the wall, as they had been directed, not of stone, as having no artist capable of such a work, but of sods, made it of no use. However, they drew it for many miles between the two bays or inlets of the seas, which we have spoken of; to the end that where the defence of the water was wanting, they might use the rampart to defend their borders from the irruptions of the enemies. Of which work there erected, that is, of a rampart of extraordinary breadth and height, there are evident remains to be seen at this day. It begins at about two miles' distance from the monastery A.D. 416. of Abercurnig, on the west, at a place called in the Pictish language, Peanfahel, but in the English tongue, Penneltun, and running to the westward, ends near the city Aleluith.
But the former enemies, when they perceived that the Roman soldiers were gone, immediately coming by sea, broke into the borders, trampled and overran all places, and, like men mowing ripe corn, bore down all before them. Hereupon messengers are again sent to Rome, imploring aid, lest their wretched country should be utterly extirpated, and the name of a Roman province so long renowned among them, being overthrown by the cruelties of barbarous foreigners, might grow contemptible. A legion is accordingly sent again, and arriving unexpectedly in autumn, made great slaughter of the enemy, obliging all those that could escape, to flee beyond the sea; whereas before, they were wont yearly to carry off their booty without any opposition. Then the Romans declared to the Britons, that they could not for the future undertake such troublesome expeditions for their sake, advising them rather to handle their weapons, like men, and undertake themselves the charge of engaging their enemies, who would not prove too powerful for them, unless they were de