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Quin etiam, quod et hoc sociis, quos derelinquere cogebantur, aliquid commodi allaturum putabant, murum a mari ad mare recto tramite inter urbes, quæ ibidem ob metum hostium factæ fuerant, ubi et Severus quondam vallum fecerat, firmo de lapide locarunt; quem videlicet murum hactenus famosum atque conspicuum, sumtu publico privatoque, adjuncta secum Britannorum manu, construebant, octo pedes latum et duodecim altum, recta ab oriente in occasum linea, ut usque hodie intuentibus clarum est ; quo mox condito, dant fortia segni populo monita, præbent instituendorum exemplaria armorum. Sed et in litore oceani ad meridiem, quo naves eorum habebantur, quia et inde barbarorum irruptio timebatur, turres per intervalla ad prospectum maris collocant, et valedicunt sociis tanquam ultra non reversuri.

Quibus ad sua remeantibus, cognita Scoti Pictique reditus denegatione redeunt confestim ipsi, et solito confidentiores facti omnem aquilonalem extremamque insulæ partem pro indigenis ad murum usque capessunt. Statuitur ad hæc in edito arcis acies segnis, ubi trementi corde stupida die noctuque marcebat; at contra non cessant uncinata hostium tela, ignavi propugnatores miserrime de muris tracti solo allidebantur. Quid plura? relictis civitatibus ac muro, fugiunt, disperguntur; insequitur hostis, accelerantur strages cunctis crudeliores prioribus. Sicut enim agni a feris, ita miseri cives discerpuntur ab hostibus ; unde a mansionibus ac possessiunculis suis ejecti, imminens sibi famis periculum latrocinio ac rapacitate mutua temperabant, augentes externas domesticis motibus clades, donec omnis regio totius cibi sustentaculo, excepto venandi solatio, vacuaretur.

terred by cowardice; and, thinking that it might be
some help to the allies, whom they were forced to aban-
don, they built a strong stone wall from sea to sea, in
a straight line between the towns that had been there
built for fear of the enemy, and not far from the trench
of Severus. This famous wall, which is still to be seen,
was built at the public and private expense, the Britons
also lending their assistance. It is eight feet in breadth,
and twelve in height, in a straight line from east to
west, as is still visible to beholders. This being finished,
they gave that dispirited people good advice, with pat-
terns to furnish them with arms. Besides, they built
towers on the sea-coast to the southward, at proper
distances, where their ships were, because there also
the irruptions of the barbarians were apprehended, and
so took leave of their friends, never to return again.

After their departure, the Scots and Picts, understanding that they had declared they would come no more, speedily returned, and growing more confident than they had been before, occupied all the northern and farthest part of the island, as far as the wall. Hereupon a timorous guard was placed upon the wall, where they pined away day and night in the utmost fear. On the other side, the enemy attacked them with hooked weapons, by which the cowardly defendants were dragged from the wall, and dashed against the ground. At last, the Britons, forsaking their cities and wall, took to flight and were dispersed. The enemy pursued, and The wretchthe slaughter was greater than on any former occasion; the Britons i for the wretched natives were torn in pieces by their enemies, as lambs are torn by wild beasts. Thus being expelled their dwellings and possessions, they saved themselves from starvation, by robbing and plundering one another, adding to the calamities occasioned by foreigners, by their own domestic broils, till the whole country was left destitute of food, except such as could be procured in the chase.

ed state of

kilde

CAP. XIII.—UT, REGNANTE THEODOSIO MINORE, CUJUS

TEMPORE PALLADIUS AD SCOTOS IN CHRISTUM CREDENTES MISSUS EST, BRITONES AB ÆTIO CONSULE AUXILIUM FLAGITANTES NON IMPETRAVERINT.

Anno Dominicæ incarnationis quadringentesimo vigesimo tertio, Theodosius junior post Honorium quadragesimus quintus ab Augusto, regnum suscipiens viginti et sex annis tenuit; cujus anno imperii octavo, Palladius ad Scotos in Christum credentes a pontifice Romanæ ecclesiæ Celestino primus mittitur episcopus. Anno autem regni ejus vigesimo tertio Ætius, vir illustris, qui et patricius fuit, tertium cum Symmacho gessit consulatum. Ad hunc pauperculæ Britonum reliquiæ mittunt epistolam, cujus hoc principium est; “ Ætio ter consuli, gemitus Britannorum ;" et in processu epistolæ ita suas calamitates explicant; “ Repellunt barbari ad mare, repellit mare ad barbaros; inter hæc oriuntur duo genera funerum, aut jugulamur, aut mergimur.” Neque hæc tamen agentes quicquam ab illo auxilii impetrare quiverunt, utpote qui gravissimis eo tempore bellis cum Bledla et Attila, regibus Hunnorum, erat occupatus. Et quamvis, anno ante hunc proximo, Bledla Attilæ fratris sui sit interemtus insidiis, Attila tamen ipse adeo intolerabilis reipublicæ remansit hostis, ut totam pene Europam, excisis invasisque civitatibus atque castellis, corroderet. Quin et iisdem temporibus fames Constantinopolim invasit; nec mora, pestis secuta est, sed et plurimi ejusdem urbis muri cum quinquaginta septem turribus corruerunt; multis quoque civitatibus collapsis, fames et aerum pestifer odor plura hominum millia jumentorumque delevit.

CHAP. XIII.-IN THE REIGN OF THEODOSIUS THE YOUNGER,

PALLADIUS WAS SENT TO THE SCOTS THAT BELIEVED IN
CHRIST; THE BRITONS BEGGING ASSISTANCE OF ÆTIUS, THE
CONSUL, COULD NOT OBTAIN IT.

Theodosius

of the

In the year of our Lord 423, Theodosius, the younger, A.D. 423. next to Honorius, being the forty-fifth from Augustus, emperor. governed the Roman empire twenty-six years. In the eighth year of his reign, Palladius was first sent by Celestinus, the Roman pontiff, to the Scots that believed in Christ, to be their first bishop. In the twenty-third A. D. 446. year of his reign, Ætius, a renowned person, being also Ætius. a patrician, discharged his third consulship with Symmachus for his colleague. To him the wretched remains of the Britons sent a letter, which began thus :-“ To Ætius, thrice Consul, the groans of the Britons.” And in the sequel of the letter they thus expressed their calamities :—“ The barbarians drive us to the sea ; the sea The groans drives us back to the barbarians: between them we are Britons. exposed to two sorts of death; we are either slain or drowned." Yet neither could all this procure any assistance from him, as he was then engaged in most dangerous wars with Bledla and Attila, kings of the Huns. And, though the year before this, Bledla had been murdered by the treachery of his brother Attila, yet Attila himself remained so intolerable an enemy to the Republic, that he ravaged almost all Europe, invading and destroying cities and castles. At the same time there was a famine at Constantinople, and shortly after, a plague followed, and a great part of the walls of that city, with fifty-seven towers, fell to the ground. Many cities also went to ruin, and the famine and pestilential state of the air destroyed thousands of men and cattle.

CAP. XIV.-UT BRITONES, FAME FAMOSA COACTI, BARBA

ROS SUIS E FINIBUS PEPULERINT ; NEC MORA, FRUGUM COPIA, LUXURIA, PESTILENTIA, ET EXTERMINIUM GENTIS SECUTUM SIT.

INTEREA Britones fames illa præfata magis magisque afficiens, ac famam suæ malitiæ posteris diuturnam relinquens, multos eorum coegit victas infestis prædonibus dare manus, alios vero nunquam ; quin potius confidentes in Divinum ubi humanum cessabat auxilium, de ipsis montibus, speluncis ac saltibus continue rebellabant; et tum primum inimicis, qui per multos annos prædas in terra agebant, strages dare cæperunt. Revertuntur ergo impudentes grassatores Hiberni domum, post non longum tempus reversuri; Picti in extrema parte insulæ tunc primum et deinceps quieverunt, prædas tamen nonnunquam exinde et contritiones de Britonum gente agere non cessarunt.

Cessante autem vastatione hostili, tantis frugum copiis insula, quantas nulla retro ætas meminit, affluere cæpit; cum quibus et luxuria crescere, et hanc continuo omnium lues scelerum comitari acceleravit; crudelitas præcipue, et odium veritatis amorque mendacii, ita ut, si quis eorum mitior et veritati aliquatenus propior videretur, in hunc, quasi Britanniæ subversorem, omnium odia telaque sine respectu contorquerentur. Et non solum hæc seculares viri, sed etiam ipse grex Domini ejusque pastores egerunt; ebrietati, animositati, litigio, contentioni, invidiæ, ceterisque hujusmodi facinoribus, sua colla, abjecto levi jugo Christi, subdentes. Interea subito corruptæ mentis homines acerba pestis corripuit, quæ in brevi tantam ejus multitudinem stravit, ut ne sepeliendis quidem mortuis vivi sufficerent; sed ne morte qui

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