5 Explain the terms tropical, anomalistic, and sidereal year,

lunar cycle, indiction. 6 Give as accurate an account as you can of lunar eclipses. 7 State Kepler's laws. 8 Explain the general objects of a kalendar, and state the Gre

gorian rule. 9 Mention any explanations that have been suggested of the

origin of solar heat, and the arguments by which they

have been supported. 10 Explain the reason why objects reflected in a mirror appear

to lie behind it. 11 The laws of reflection and refraction : mention any natural

phænomena which are explained by the latter. 12 What would be the optical effect of placing oneself between

two mirrors inclined at an angle of 45° ? 13 Describe in detail the optical arrangements of any one kind

of telescope. 14 Define specific gravity, and explain how, by means of a

hydrometer, the specific gravity of a fluid may be ascertained.


15 Find how much lead, whose specific gravity is 11.4, will

just sink a cubic foot of cork whose specific gravity is • 2 in water ; the weight of a cubic foot of water being

1,000 oz. 16 Explain the method of graduating thermometers. 17 Explain the Leyden jar. 18 What is meant by the variation of the needle ? 19 What are the principal sedimentary strata ? 20 What arguments do Geology and Astronomy furnish in

favour of internal heat in the earth ?


1 Define the following geographical terms, and mention any

countries or districts to which they apply :-
Archipelago, Chersonese, Delta, Steppe, Savannah,

Sound, Fiord, Lagoon.


2 Trace the course of four of the following rivers, stating the

countries through which they flow, and the principal towris on their banks :

Danube, Amazon, Oder, Indus, Nile, Dnieper. 3 Where are Behring Straits, the Straits of Babelmandel and

Bonifaccio, and the Kattegat? 4 Into how many departments is France divided ? Give the

names of any you remember, and mention the provinces

to which they most nearly correspond respectively. 5 What is the Zollverein ? 6 What were the Hanseatic towns, and why so called ? 7 Mention the requisites of a good map. 8 Draw a map, either of England and Wales, inserting the

county towns and principal seaports, or of Palestine, according to its territorial divisions at the date of our Saviour's birth, indicating the position of the Jewish

tribes. 9 Trace the course of the Gulf Stream. 10 Where are the following towns situated :

Barcelona, Messina, Liege, Mosul, Nantes, Nancy, Dinan,

Dinant, Kiev, Coleraine, Vera Cruz and Ilyderabad ? 11 What are the principal passes of the Alps ? Mention any

theories which have been held as to the probable route of

Hannibal in crossing them, and give your own opinion. 12 Show how the character of a nation may be influenced by its

geology and physical geography.

Miscellaneous Competitive Papers.


1 When, and by whom, was Christianity introduced into

Britain ? 2 What is the “ Salic Law ?”. Give any instance of its

operation. 3 Trace the descent of the Crown, and that of the reigning

sovereign, from King George I.

4 “During the 160 years which preceded the union of the

Roses, nine kings reigned in England ; six of these nine kings were deposed, five lost their lives as well as their crowns :'

name the sovereigns referred to. 5 When did the union of the kingdoms of England and Scot

land take place ? How is the Scotch peerage now repre

sented in the House of Lords? 6 A recent historian, speaking of an English sovereign, says,

“In certain respects his reign is an era in our history. It began in revolution and a change in the line of descent. It nearly coincides with the commencement of what is termed modern history, as distinguished from the middle ages, and with the memorable events that have led us to make that distinction, especially the consolidation of the great European monarchies.” Mention the name of the

sovereign referred to, and explain the allusion. 7 What is the meaning of the constitutional maxim, “The

King can do no wrong ?” 8 Beginning with the Restoration, mention in chronological

order the subjects connected with foreign, colonial, or domestic politics which have successively engrossed the

largest share of public attention in England. 9 When did Shakespeare live? Mention the names of his

historical plays, and the characters introduced in some

one of them. 10 State roughly the amount of the national revenue in recent

years, and the sources from which it has been principally

derived. 11 Mention the names of Grecian and Roman orators, and the

subject of any of their speeches. 12 Give the dates and final issue of the Punic wars, and the

names of generals who commanded. 13 Under what Roman emperor was Jerusalem destroyed ?

What contemporary historian has left a narrative of the

war? 14 Name the two European states which have most recently

come into existence. 15 What causes principally led to the first French revolution ? 16 Give a short account of the origin and termination of the

Thirty Years' war.

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B. All the questions should be answered with dates, if possible. 1 Under what circumstances did the Romans first invade

Britain ? Name the great leaders under whom the conquest was extended and completed. Who was Em

peror of Rome when the Romans abandoned the island ? 2 Who were the Saxons ? In what part of England did they

first settle? Who was the first Saxon King of England ? 3 What were the chief events in the reign of Stephen? How was he related to William the Conqueror ?

Who were the father and mother of Henry II. ? 4 In the year 1224 there was a war with France; what led to

it, and what were the results ? 5 Who was Henry of Windsor ?

Whom did he marry, and where did he die ? 6 Name the principal statesmen and writers of the age of

Queen Elizabeth ; and give as complete an account as

you can of any one of them. 7 What was the Triple Alliance in the reign of Charles II ?

How did the king act in carrying out its provisions ? 8 What circumstances led William III. to contemplate the

resignation of his crown? 9 In 1755 a war broke out with France ; what is this war

called in history ? Describe its origin, and its first

operations and results. 10 State very briefly the occasions on which the following

battles were fought : Tewkesbury, Bunker's Hill, Corunna, Oudenarde, Plassy, St. Vincent.

ARITHMETIC. 1 Reduce 344612 ounces avoirdupois to cwts., quarters, &c.,

and 13 lbs. 9 oz. 15 dwts. 13 grains troy, to grains. 2 How many feet are there in 5 miles, 3 furlongs, 4 poles,

3 yards ? 3 The side of a cube is 17 inches : find its content in solid yards,

feet and inches. 4 The sides of a rectangular plot are 57 ft. 5 in. and 43 ft. 5 in. :

find its area in square yards, feet and inches.



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5 If A invests 33,0751. in the purchase of 31. per cent. at 87},

and B invests the same sum in the purchase of 41. per per cent. at 94}, what will be the difference in their net

incomes, after deducting income tax at 16d. in the pound ? 6 If 13 of a cwt. be worth 71. 3s., what will be the value of

of a ton ? 7 If the shares of a railway are at 76} when consols are at 93),

what would be their price when consols are at 894 ? 8 Find by the method of " Practice : (a) The price of 9 tons, 11 cwt. 2 qrs. 21 lbs. at 101. 11s.

4d. per cwt. (6) The price of 17 acres, 3 roods, 15 poles, at 601. 3s. 4d.

per acre. 9 If 780 men on full rations consume 221 quarters of wheat

in 119 days, how many on half rations will consume 437 quarters in 57 days ?

[Explain the method by which you proceed.] 10 If 10 lbs. 3 oz. of tea at 4s. 8d. per pound be mixed with

23 lbs. 3 oz. at 5s. 4d., and 17 lbs. 11 oz. at 6s. 8d., and the mixture be sold at 6s. 1d. per pound, what will be the gain or loss; and what the gain or loss per cent. on

the cost price? 11 Find the interest at 43 per cent. on 9241. 12s. 8d. lent on the

18th of March, and repaid on the 11th of August, the

former day being excluded and the latter included. 12 What principal, lent at 3 per cent. simple interest, will

amount in 5 years to 1,8841. 195. 101d? 13 What will be the amount of 8251, at the end of 2 years, at

41. per cent. per annuin compound interest accruing, due

half yearly? 14 Reduce to their simplest forms the expressions(a) 4 + 1 + 1 - 4

+13 (b) i of 61% of 14 jo divided by 1 of 299}. (C) of a pound + 147 of a guinea + glo of 6s. 8d. +

oz of a crown. 15 Explain the rules for the multiplication and division of

Divide .015 by .00005, and 313.24 by 24997-5; show-

ing in the latter case the whole of the circulating




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