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ceeding $500, and for unlawful cohabitation like imprisonment for not more than six months and a fine of not more than $300. The fines and costs assessed and collected in the latter class of cases amount to the sum of $44,235.20.

These laws variously and powerfully re-inforced by the progress of ideas, intelligence, and the modern agencies of communication and intercourse, as railroads, the telegraph, and the press, have, in our opinion, struck a deadly blow at the institution of polygamy and the indulgence of sexual offenses in Utah.

On the other hand, individual instances of aberration from the general course of reform thus evidenced have been cited. We have no disposition to excuse or palliate these exceptions; on the contrary, we condemn them. Yet, in a large and philosophical view, they should not be deemed unnatural or strange. Radical revolutions of opinions and habits, especially of religious convictions, usually if not universally encounter the friction of opposition and resistance. While the mass moves onward, minorities and individuals pull backward and secede. It has always been so, and, in the nature of things, must continue to be so. The history of political and church government abundantly and alike illustrates this truth. Nevertheless, the revolution, as the world, will move on, carrying the consenting with it and destroying the influ ence of the dissenters and obstructionists.

The revolution of opinion and conduct among the Mormons in Utah, particularly in the rising generation, is inaugurated and advancing with increasing momentum to the front and the control, and, in our opinion, it will irresistibly proceed until its mission is finished. Revolutions, as a rule, do not retrograde.

Now that it is apparent that the practice of polygamy is passing away, another thing is made prominent and brought forward by nonMormons in Utah as a justification for further hostile discrimination by the Government against the Mormons, namely, their religion and church government. On this subject we will repeat the language of our last annual report:

Now, in the close of the most enlightened century in the tide of time, shall we invoke legal coercion over the consciences of men and resort to the pains and penalties inflicted in former times for recusancy, non-conformity, apostasy, and heresy?

In this age the world moves; and even religious fanatics must keep pace with progress. The Utah of to-day is not what it was when Brigham Young, as prophet, Scer, and revelator dominated over his devoted followers, isolated from all the world in the secluded valleys of the Rocky Mountains; nor in our opinion, can that fading and dissolving specter of the past be justly or properly invoked as an excitative to legislation proscriptive of religious opinion. The railroad and the telegraph, free speech and a free press are there now. Schools and colleges and churches of many denominations are found in all parts of the Territory. The people are no longer isolated, but are now in communication with all the world; and Salt Lake City is one of the most cosmopolitan places on the continent; a resort for tourists, savants, statesmen, and scholars from abroad. Under such circumstances is it not morally impossible that Utah shall ever again become subject to that church domination and oppression which are now imputed, by some persons, as an existing reality against the "Mormon hierarchy?"

In concluding this report we wish to say that we take our stand on the Constitution, the decisions of the Supreme Court, and the principles of civil and religious liberty as proclaimed by the fathers of the Republic, principles that should never be violated at the behest of popular prejudice against Jews, Catholics, Protestants, or Mormons.

The Supreme Court of the United States has declared that—

Laws are made for the government of actions, and while they can not interfere with mere religious belief they may with practices, * *

*

Congress can not pass a law for the government of the Territories which shall prohibit the free exercise of religion. The first amendment to the Constitution expressly forbids such legislation. Religious freedom is guarantied everywhere throughout the United States, so far as Congressional interference is concerned (8 Otto, 145).

Madison says, sententiously:

Religion, or the duty which we owe to our Creator, is not within the province of civil government.

Jefferson says:

Believing that religion is a matter which lies solely between man and his God, and that he owes account to none other for his faith or his worship; that the legislative powers of the Government reaches actions only, and not opinions, I contemplate with solemn reverence that act of the whole American people which declares that their legislature should make no law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof. (8 Jefferson's Works, 113.)

In the discharge of our official duty relating to Utah we have endeavored to divest ourselves of all prejudice and animosity, and in a calm and judicial frame of mind to ascertain the truth. Our conclusion, from all the evidence before us, including our personal observation, is that a radical reform in the near future is morally certain, and that "Young Utah" will stand forth redeemed, regenerated, and disenthralled from the heavy burden that has so long rested upon the people. Yours, respectfully,

The SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR,

JOHN A. MCCLERNAND.
A. B. CARLTON.

Washington, D. C.

REPORT

OF

THE GOVERNOR OF ARIZONA.

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT,

ARIZONA TERRITORY,
Prescott, October 20, 1888.

SIR: I have the honor to submit this my annual report of the affairs and of the progress and development of the Territory of Arizona for the year ending June 30, 1888.

The general progress and development of the Territory and the steady growth of all its varied material interests have been gratifying. Wealth and population are gradually increasing; capital is seeking investment; mining resources are steadily being disclosed; irrigating canals are being constructed; water-storage systems perfected, and thousands of acres of desert lands reclaimed, and lines of railroads projected, which will facilitate and better the service of transportation, and open up the markets for our mining, timber, agriculture, and horticultural products.

POPULATION.

By the census of 1876 the population of Arizona was 30,191. The United States census of 1880 gave the population as 40,440. The census of 1882 showed the population of the Territory by counties as follows:

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Showing an increase of 100 per cent. in two years. Since then there has been no census taken, but the increase is constantly going on. It is of a permanent character and not born of "booms," which too often is the fluctuating basis on which new countries are brought into notice, only to survive until the schemes of theorists and phantoms of specu lators are exploded. Not so with Arizona. In the early days of its organization as a Territory it started on a permanent career of progress under difficulties that would discourage the most sanguine settler. It was indeed "dark and bloody ground." For years and years a continued story of Indian warfare-an unequal struggle between civilization

and savagery. At last civilization won. The days of privation and danger are over. The rancher now herds his cattle on the plains and hill-sides, the miner prospects for the hidden treasure in the mountains, and the farmer plows, seeds, and reaps without carrying his life in his hand. Life and property are now safe, and law and order supreme. A higher and more perfect civilization has come, and come to stay, bringing with it social, material, and intellectual prowess. The future of Arizona is now assured, and her growth and population certain, for nowhere in the United States are greater inducements offered for immigration, better openings for labor, or more certain returns for capital. The immigration has chiefly come from the Northwestern and Southwestern States, is largely native-born, and mostly farmers and stock-raisers.

TAXABLE PROPERTY.

There has been a rapid increase of taxable property of the Territory. In 1876 it amounted to $1,400,000; in 1877 there was an increase of $400,000. In the past ten years it has augmented $24,200,000, the greatest growth in the past year being in the counties of Maricopa and Yavapai, the former increasing about $1,000,000, the latter, $500,000. Maricopa is the leading agricultural and horticultural county, while Yavapai is the leading grazing and stock-raising county. The Terri torial auditor's report shows the number of head of cattle returned for taxation in 1886 and 1888. as follows:

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An increase of taxable values in two years on cattle alone of about 33 per cent.

The large increase of values during the past year in Maricopa County arises chiefly from desert lands which have been reclaimed, proven up, brought under cultivation, and rendered liable to taxation. The increase from this source in the next few years will necessarily be very great, not only in Maricopa County, but also in the respective counties of Pinal and Yuma, in which is included the extended valley of desert land, stretching some 200 miles in length by 125 miles in width, containing many millions of acres of land subject to reclamation by irrigation. It is now an arid waste; no sign of vegetation or animal life, save an occasional saguara, mesquite or grease-wood brush; yet every acre, by the artificial application of water, is susceptible of the highest state of cultivation, and made to produce profitable crops. The policy of the Territory has been, and still is, to deal liberally in the assessment of property. The assessment rolls do not represent more than one-third of the cash value of the taxable property, which will aggregate $75,000,000. The rate of tax for Territorial and county purposes is gradually being reduced, and all our securities are being sought after by investors, even at reduced rates of interest, paying therefor a premium, and proving conclusively that the policy of economy, retrenchment, and reform, inaugurated by the last Territorial legislature, is aring legitimate fruit, and that with increased values and reduced ditures there must follow a lessening of the tax rate.

SETTLEMENT OF LANDS.

The public lands of Arizona are rapidly being settled. The increase of business at the Tucson land office is simply incredible.

Many complaints are preferred against the land officers at Tucson respecting the delay in their business, but I am satisfied that they are working faithfully and efficiently, doing the best they can with the limited clerical facilities afforded them. I would respectfully recommend they be furnished additional aid, so that this branch of the public business can more promptly be dispatched.

I annex hereto a statement of entries received and accepted by the United States Land Office for the fiscal year beginning July 1, 1887, and ending June 30, 1888, together with the acreage and amount of money received:

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Arizona needs a more thorough railroad system, more north and south roads. At present the Territory is traversed east and west by the Southern Pacific and the Atlantic and Pacific, both transcontinental lines; besides there is a road to Clifton, Ariz., running from Lordsburgh, N. Mex.; one from Benson to Nogales; one from Maricopa Station, on the Southern Pacific, to Phoenix; and from Prescott Junction, on the Atlantic and Pacific, to Prescott, aggregating 1,050.04 miles. A road connecting Prescott and Phoenix and one running through the great agricultural and horticultural belts of Graham, Pinal, and Maricopa Counties would be of great benefit in the development of our mineral, agricultural, and timber industries, and prove profitable investments for railroad capital.

AGRICULTURE.

It has been a popular error of the past that Arizona was but a barren country, overrun with venomous reptiles and Apache Indians, but that delusion is fast being dispelled, and her great possibilities as an agricultural country are being admitted. The recent developments made by Lieut. Frank Cushing, under authority of the Smithsonian Institution, and the patronage of Mrs. Hemingway, of Boston, prove beyond question that centuries ago the Salt River Valley contained a population of three hundred thousand souls, supported by agriculture. There can be traced to-day upon the surface their ancient water-ways, through which, in the dim past, water was applied to the thirsty soil of that valley, and by crude processes of farming support was furnished to

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