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that it was in his power to confer. This speech only the more exasperated his enemies ; and in order to save him from their fury, SUFFOLK was sent by the King into banishment for five years, in the hope that he might then return to court without danger. But his inveterate foes were not to be so baffled : they employed a fast sailing vessel to intercept him in his
passage to France, which came up to him near Dover. His head was immediately struck off on the side of the vessel, and the body cast into the sea. This nobleman is one of the Dramatis Personæ of SHAKSPEARE, in the first and second parts of King Henry VI. The dying scene is thus given in the second part, Act the fourth, Scene the first. Whitmore : I lost mine eye in laying the prize aboard ;
And, therefore, to revenge it, shalt thou die. Suffolk : Look on my George, I am a gentleman;
Rate me at what thou vilt, thou shalt be paid. Whitmore : And so am I: my name is—Walter Whitmore
How now ? why start'st thou ? what, doth
death affright? Suffolk : Thy name affrights me, in whose sound is death.
A cunning man did calculate
The Duke of Suffolk, William de la Pole. Captain: Convey him hence, and on our long boat's side
Strike off his head !
Us'd to command, untaught to plead for favor.
Some of the charges preferred by the Commons against SUFFOLK seem to afford a distant clew to the word “ Quebec,” which appears upon his seal.
his seal. He was accused of having acquired for himself, and bestowed upon
his creatures and friends large possessions in France, to the prejudice of the Crown :-his unbounded influence in Normandy was complained of, where it appears he lived and ruled like a monarch ; and where he had so far acquired the affections of the inhabitants, that when they threw off their allegiance to England, the vulgar attributed it to the disaffection of SUFFOLK himself, through the interest of the Queen. Having shown, therefore, that this great nobleman had been closely connected with the English possessions in France for so many years, it is not unreasonable to conclude, that during his long services he had acquired the French title of "Quebec,” in addition to his English honors. Many of the English Peers, distinguished in the wars of France, received titles of honor in that country; as did the great Earl of Shrewsbury, “ English John Talbot,” who was created Earl of VALENCE by Henry VI. We have not been able to find, in the libraries to which we have access, any enumeration of the several titles of honor borne by the Duke of SurFOLK; but there can be no doubt that such may be discovered in the British Museum, or the Herald's College. Whenever such discovery is made, the precise character of the place whence he took his title of “Quebec," which must have been of some importance, since it is introduced on his seal of arms, will no doubt be satisfactorily explained. That such a name existed nearly two centuries before the foundation of this capital, bearing the self same orthography, must be acknowledged to be a striking and
remarkable circumstance. Even as a mere coincidence, it is curious, and altogether, we think, conclusive, that “ Quebec," so written, has no claim to the character of an Indian word. The earliest writer, Champlain, and those who followed him, gave it the present mode of spelling. Father du Creux, in order to adapt the word to the Latin, uniformily writes it, “Arx Kebeccensis, Kebeccum ;" and in the Latin inscriptions which have been found in the foundations of the Recollet Church it is written with a K. Hence the initials in the French Cathedral, P. K., for “ Paræcia Kebeccensis.” In Major Walley's journal of the expedition against Canada under Sir William Phipps, in 1690, it is called “ Cabeck." With these exceptions it has uniformly preserved the Norman orthography, as given in the Suffolk seal
. Granting, then, the Norman origin of the word, it may be asked how we dispose of the positive evidence of Champlain, who tells us, that the 5 point of Quebec was so called by the savages ?” This is not so difficult as at first view it may appear. We learn from La Potherie, that the little River St. Charles was called by the natives, CABIR-COUBAT, on account of its serpentine course. “ Il y a une rivière à une petite demié lieue de là, appelée Cabir-Coubat par les sauvages, à raison des tours et detours qu'elle fait :” Voyage de l'Amérique, Tom. I. p. 124. Here then is an entire change in the Indian description, equally accurate, but taken from another feature of the locality. We had before, the “ place of the strait :" we have now, “ the winding river.” It has been stated that there is no proof that the name
of “ Quebec,” heard by Champlain, was descriptive of the former appellation : there is every probability that it was taken from the latter. We believe, then,
that the word, COUBAT, was the sound heard by Champlain, as applied by the natives to the “point," where the little river flows into the St. Lawrence ; and which spot was chosen by him for his first settlement. The time and quantity of the words themselves correspond: the number of the syllables and letters is the same, while the initial breathing is exactly similar. One, pronounced by an Indian, might easily be mistaken for the other. Let any one slowly repeat the Indian name, Coubat, several times, always remembering the Italian softness of pronunciation which distinguished the Algonquin dialect; and he will not find it difficult to come to the conclusion, that he has at last found the true origin of the celebrated name, which in the mouths of the French, already familiarised to the present termination, according so well with the locality, soon assumed the form, orthography and pronunciation of QUEBEC.
The result of the foregoing observations amounts to this : That the etymology of the word CANADA is proved to be the Iroquois word Kannata, signifying a collection of huts, or a village; while there are strong grounds for believing that the name QUEBEC, per se, is in fact a Norman word, That some Indian name which resembled it in sound was heard by Champlain, and considered to be that of the place where he settled that this Indian word was most probably the latter division of their name for the River St. Charles, CABIR-COUBAT; and that from this word, it gradually acquired its present appellation.
CHAPTER THE EIGHTH.
THE CASTLE OF ST. LEWIS-ITS FOUNDATION-CAPTURE BY KERTKREMARKABLE SCENE THEREIN
DESCRIBED BY LA POTHERIE-AND BY CHARLEVOIX-DESTRUCTION BY FIRE.
Few circumstances of discussion and enquiry are more interesting than the history and fate of ancient buildings, especially if we direct our attention to the fortunes and vicissitudes of those who were connected with them. The temper, genius and pursuits of an historical era are frequently delineated in the features of remarkable edifices: nor can any one contemplate them without experiencing curiosity concerning those who first formed the plan, and afterwards created and tenanted the structure. These observations apply particularly to the subject of this chapter.
The history of the ancient Castle of St. Lewis, or Fort of Quebec, for above two centuries the seat of government in the Province, affords subjects of great and stirring interest during its several periods. The hall of the old Fort, during the weakness of the colony, was often a scene of terror and despair at the inroads of the persevering and ferocious Iroquois ; who, having passed or overthrown all the French outposts, more than once threatened the Fort itself, and massacred some friendly Indians within sight of its walls. There,