other ships and vessels were likewise driven ashore, or effe: tually destroyed.

The night following, the enemy raised the siege of Queles very precipitately, leaving their cannon, small arms, stores, &c. behind them. The Lowestoffe run upon some unknovu rocks, in pursuit of the enemy, and was irrecoverably lost, lai the officers and men were saved,

All attempts to recover possession of QUEBEC having thus completely failed, the Marquis de VarDREUIL determined to take his last stand on behali of French dominion at MONTREAL. To this point he called in all his detachments, and here he collected and concentrated his remaining strength, But the net was fast closing around him—the fate of CANADA was already decided—General AMHERST was approaching from LAKE CHAMPLAIN—and the armies from Quebec and LAKE ONTARIO having arrived on the same day before MONTREAL, a capitulation was signed on the 8th September, and the conquest of CANADA was completed in little more than two years from the reduction of LOUISBOURG.

The intelligence of the surrender of MONTREAL and of the whole Province-which was looked upon by the nation as a worthy termination to the expedition of WOLFE -was received in London on the 4th October, and the despatches were published in the London Gazette on the 6th.

His MAJESTY GEORGE II. outlived the glorious news only a few days. On the 16th, he received an Address of congratulation from the Lord Mayor, Aldermen and Common Council-men of LONDON. On the 25th, in the midst of the hearty rejoicings of the people for the acquisition of so immense an extent of Empire, the King was suddenly seized with ill

ness, and soon expired in the 77th year of his age, and the 34th of his reign.

His MAJESTY GEORGE III. had the gratification of receiving the homage of his new subjects. In the summer of 1763, the Chevalier CHAUSSEGROS DE LERY and his lady were presented at Court, and were the first of His MAJESTY’s Canadian subjects who had that honor. The young and gallant Monarch, on receiving Madame DE LERY, who was a very beautiful woman, observed to her," If all the ladies of CANADA are as handsome as yourself, I have indeed made a conquest.”




The invasion of Canada by the troops of the American Congress rendered the year 1775 remarkable in the annals of the Province. The principal points which will demand our attention are the expedition of Arnold, the storming of Quebec, and the death of Montgomery.

Canada, supposed to be perfectly secure, had been left almost destitute of regular troops, nearly all of which had been removed to Boston. The whole force of this description consisted of only two Regiments of Infantry, the 7th Fusileers, and the 26th, amounting to no more than eight hundred men. Of these the greater part were in garrison at St. John's, the rest dispersed through the various posts. The Province was, however, extremely fortunate in the character, talents and resources of the Governor, General Carleton.

On the 17th September, 1775, Brigadier General Richard Montgomery, who had formerly been in the British service, appeared at the head of an army, before the Fort of St. John's ; which, after a gallant defence, surrendered on the 3rd November, the gar

rison marching out with the honors of war. Montreal, which was entirely defenceless, capitulated on the 12th November ; and General Carleton, conceiving it of the utmost importance to reach Quebec, the only place capable of defence, passed through the American force stationed at Sorel, during the night, in a canoe with muffled paddles ; and arrived in Quebec on the 19th, to the great joy of the garrison and loyal inhabitants, who placed every confidence in his well known courage and ability. :

While the Province was thus threatened with subjugation on the side of Montreal, a new danger presented itself from a quarter so entirely unexpected, that until the particulars were ascertained, the fears and superstitions of the inhabitants of the country parishes had ample subject for employment and exaggeration, An expedition of a singular and daring character had been successfully prosecuted against Quebec from the New England States, by a route which was little known and generally considered impracticable. This expedition was headed by Colonel Arnold, an officer in the service of the Congress; who with two regiments, amounting to about eleven hundred men, left Boston about the middle of September, and undertook to penetrate through the wilderness to Pointe Lévi, by the means of the Rivers Kennebec and Chaudière.

The spirit of enterprise evinced in this bold design, and the patience, hardihood and perseverance of the new raised forces employed in the execution, will forever distinguish this expedition in the history of offensive operations. A handful of men ascending the course of a rapid river, and conveying arms, ammunition, baggage, and provisions through an almost trackless wild—bent upon a most uncertain purpose

-can scarcely be considered, however, a regular operation of war. It was rather a desperate attempt, suited to the temper of the fearless men engaged in it, the character of the times, and of the scenes which were about to be acted on the American continent. The project, however, of Arnold was by no means an original thought. It had been suggested by Governor Pownall, in his “ Idea of the service of America,” as early as the year 1758. He says,—“ The people of Massachusetts, in the counties of Hampshire, Worcester and York are the best wood-hunters in America. ... ... I should think if about a hundred thorough wood-hunters, properly officered, could be obtained in the County of York, a scout of such might make an attempt upon the settlements by way of Chaudière River."

On the 22nd September, Arnold embarked on the Kennebec River in two hundred batteaux; and notwithstanding all natural impediments—the ascent of a rapid stream-interrupted by frequent portages through thick woods and swamps-in spite of frequent accidents-the desertion of one-third of the number—they at length arrived at the head of the River Chaudière, having crossed the ridge of land which separates the waters falling into the St. Lawrence from those which run into the sea. They now reached Lake Megantic, and following the course of the Chaudière River, their difficulties and privations, which had been so great as on one occasion to compel them to kill their dogs' for sustenance, were speedily at an end. After passing thirty-two days in the wilderness, they arrived on the 4th November at the first settlement, called Sertigan, twenty five leagues from Quebec, where they obtained all kinds of provisions.

On the 9th, Colonel Arnold


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